Welcome!

Cloud Security Authors: Matthew McKenna, Dan Potter, Pat Romanski, Elizabeth White, Liz McMillan

Related Topics: @CloudExpo, Cloud Security

@CloudExpo: Article

The TPM, Trust and the Cloud: Making Trust Real

The journey towards higher cloud security begins with the first step of establishing a foundation

As one of the hottest trends going in the information/computing world, how do the requirements for cloud security relate to the security concerns that enterprises have been addressing prior to the uptick in cloud computing? While the cloud is a relatively new area for concern, improved security has been a hot button for organizations of all size for well over a decade.

The cloud continues to evolve with various services and models including externally hosted public cloud services such as Amazon, independently hosted cloud services by an enterprise or third party that are either outside the firewall or inside the firewall (private cloud services), and a hybrid of private/internal and public/external models. On the surface, the different models might appear to have different privacy, access control and data protection issues. However, compliance issues and business data leakage out of any of these clouds pose problems for an organization similar to ones that existed prior to working in the cloud.

No matter which cloud services or model is pursued, security improvements should be among the criteria on the "must have" list. Issues to consider include: hardware versus software-based security, hardware activation, known users, known machines, accessing both data and application services, data protection and compliance, and protecting the service provider's agreement for controlled user access. For data leakage and access control, authorization to access information from the cloud, whether it's an application or an application with data, requires a trusted endpoint to ensure strong authentication and knowledge of who is accessing the cloud service and the data hosted by the cloud service. In fact, a trusted endpoint is part of the solution for addressing all of the issues. One solution involves implementing the Trusted Platform Module (TPM), a widely available security chip that already resides in most business PCs. This standard-based hardware component provides stronger security than software-only approaches that can be stolen, hacked, impersonated or worse, causing security breaches and business disruption.

Hardware-Based Trust
Developed by the Trusted Computing Group (TCG), the TPM is a standard for providing a hardware-based root of trust for computing and other systems. Unlike other hardware token security tools that are available in USB, key fob, and smart card type products, the standards-based TPM is typically an application-specific integrated (ASIC) available from multiple sources to ensure a highly competitive and readily available component installed in the computer when it was manufactured. TPM capability also can be integrated into chipsets, Ethernet controllers, and the like. To date, it has been is estimated that 200-300 million TPMs have shipped in enterprise PCs based on these standards.

The open standards-based approach provides a low-cost, flexible solution from multiple sources with a higher adoption rate and extensive support from over 100 technology companies in the industry across the globe. International governments have already adopted or plan to adopt the TPM as the standard for authentication. If these governments pursue cloud services, they will not proceed without a similar strong authentication methodology - and they will not implement proprietary technology.

Although inside the computer, the TPM needs to be activated by the user to enable its ability to improve security. Once the TPM is activated, users can more securely store and manage keys and passwords as well as easily encrypt files, folders and email. The TPM allows multi-factor authentication to be based on hardware vs. the simple password in software. For multi-factor authentication requirements, the TPM complements fingerprint readers, PKI, certificates and smart cards.

Dual-Level Identification & Authentication
As a hardware item inside the computer, the TPM allows the identification of the machine as well as the user.

This elevates the sign-on process to two-factor or dual-level authentication: the user through their passwords and the second through the machine itself or the machine's authentication to a service. The approach provides a significant increase in security, especially when compared to single-factor software-only approaches.

With its secure storage for a credential or critical piece of information, the TPM also provides the ability for a multi-use module where multiple users employ the machine's TPM for machine authentication and each user authenticates to the machine. A user could have a single sign-on to different services but would still have to authenticate to the machine. Once the user has authenticated to the machine, the machine can release credentials.

The layers of authentication, where the machine is known by the cloud and the machine has a relationship with the user, significantly enhance cloud security. This process provides a chain of trust for machine-to-machine connectivity so that only known machines and known users obtain access to applications and data. Implementing this dual-level authentication solves one of the most frequently discussed cloud issues - specifically knowing the users and machines that are connected to the cloud service.

Integrating Solutions
The TPM's hardware-based security can easily integrate with software security identification (ID) standards for federated ID management such as OpenID, Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML), WS (Web Services) - Federation and others. For example, OpenID is an industry standard protocol for communication or authentication at the service level. Over 20,000 service providers support OpenID as a software token. Figure 1 shows the process for cloud access based on the two-level authentication and an identity service that uses OpenID.

Figure 1: Improved cloud security requires a hardware-based TPM token to ensure machine integrity.
Source: id.wave.com.

A cloud service can use the TPM binding an OpenID certificate to the TPM for strong machine authentication to their service. This provides not only the identity of the client but could provide a health measure as well. The service could measure the health of the client, verify a relationship, and then provide the appropriate access. This also allows multiple users per client because the machine has a relationship with the service and multiple users have relationships with the machine. The process extends the security approach across different use models.

SAML, WS-Federation and other software identification standards can be implemented in a similar manner for establishing a known identity for cloud access. The essential element for sharing an identity is a trustworthy endpoint. In all of these cases, the TPM provides the base level, the foundation of trust.

Summary
The hardware-based security model that has been described supports cloud-based private/internal, public/external and hybrid combinations of both as well as traditional IT managed networks. This allows a reuse of the security technology for minimizing costs, including the reuse of corporate client policies. The alternative is continuing on the same path of software-only authentication. However, software in the computer can be hacked, impersonated, stolen, or victimized by the malicious software it is attempting to stop. This is the same model that is broken inside the enterprise today.

Once hardware-based access is implemented for machine authentication, it enables the use of other industry standards-based tools for self-encrypting drives (SEDs) and trusted network connect (TNC). These added tools can address the data leakage problem that may result from storing the data accessed from the cloud on a user's client. The journey towards higher cloud security begins with the first step of establishing a foundation by implementing the hardware-based security of the TPM.

More Stories By Brian Berger

Brian Berger is an executive vice president for Wave Systems Corp. He manages the business, strategy and marketing functions including product management, marketing and sales direction for the company. He has been involved in security products for a number of years including work with embedded hardware, client/server applications, PKI and biometrics. He has worked in the computer industry for 20 years and has held several senior level positions in multinational companies. Berger holds two patents and has two pending patents for security products and commerce transactions capabilities using security technology. He has a bachelors of arts degree from California State University, Northridge and attended Harvard Business School, Executive Education.

Berger is Promoter member Wave’s representative to the TCG board of directors and chairs the Trusted Computing Group’s marketing work group, where he leads strategy and implementation of the organization’s marketing and communications programs. He has spoken at a number of RSA conferences, the IT Roadmap events, CTIA and a number of other industry events.

Comments (0)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


@ThingsExpo Stories
Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with the 19th International Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world and ThingsExpo Silicon Valley Call for Papers is now open.
I wanted to gather all of my Internet of Things (IOT) blogs into a single blog (that I could later use with my University of San Francisco (USF) Big Data “MBA” course). However as I started to pull these blogs together, I realized that my IOT discussion lacked a vision; it lacked an end point towards which an organization could drive their IOT envisioning, proof of value, app dev, data engineering and data science efforts. And I think that the IOT end point is really quite simple…
"My role is working with customers, helping them go through this digital transformation. I spend a lot of time talking to banks, big industries, manufacturers working through how they are integrating and transforming their IT platforms and moving them forward," explained William Morrish, General Manager Product Sales at Interoute, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 18th Cloud Expo, held June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
You think you know what’s in your data. But do you? Most organizations are now aware of the business intelligence represented by their data. Data science stands to take this to a level you never thought of – literally. The techniques of data science, when used with the capabilities of Big Data technologies, can make connections you had not yet imagined, helping you discover new insights and ask new questions of your data. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Sarbjit Sarkaria, data science team lead ...
Extracting business value from Internet of Things (IoT) data doesn’t happen overnight. There are several requirements that must be satisfied, including IoT device enablement, data analysis, real-time detection of complex events and automated orchestration of actions. Unfortunately, too many companies fall short in achieving their business goals by implementing incomplete solutions or not focusing on tangible use cases. In his general session at @ThingsExpo, Dave McCarthy, Director of Products...
WebRTC is bringing significant change to the communications landscape that will bridge the worlds of web and telephony, making the Internet the new standard for communications. Cloud9 took the road less traveled and used WebRTC to create a downloadable enterprise-grade communications platform that is changing the communication dynamic in the financial sector. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Leo Papadopoulos, CTO of Cloud9, discussed the importance of WebRTC and how it enables companies to focus...
Verizon Communications Inc. (NYSE, Nasdaq: VZ) and Yahoo! Inc. (Nasdaq: YHOO) have entered into a definitive agreement under which Verizon will acquire Yahoo's operating business for approximately $4.83 billion in cash, subject to customary closing adjustments. Yahoo informs, connects and entertains a global audience of more than 1 billion monthly active users** -- including 600 million monthly active mobile users*** through its search, communications and digital content products. Yahoo also co...
A critical component of any IoT project is what to do with all the data being generated. This data needs to be captured, processed, structured, and stored in a way to facilitate different kinds of queries. Traditional data warehouse and analytical systems are mature technologies that can be used to handle certain kinds of queries, but they are not always well suited to many problems, particularly when there is a need for real-time insights.
Amazon has gradually rolled out parts of its IoT offerings in the last year, but these are just the tip of the iceberg. In addition to optimizing their back-end AWS offerings, Amazon is laying the ground work to be a major force in IoT – especially in the connected home and office. Amazon is extending its reach by building on its dominant Cloud IoT platform, its Dash Button strategy, recently announced Replenishment Services, the Echo/Alexa voice recognition control platform, the 6-7 strategic...
The best-practices for building IoT applications with Go Code that attendees can use to build their own IoT applications. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Indraneel Mitra, Senior Solutions Architect & Technology Evangelist at Cognizant, provided valuable information and resources for both novice and experienced developers on how to get started with IoT and Golang in a day. He also provided information on how to use Intel Arduino Kit, Go Robotics API and AWS IoT stack to build an application tha...
IoT generates lots of temporal data. But how do you unlock its value? You need to discover patterns that are repeatable in vast quantities of data, understand their meaning, and implement scalable monitoring across multiple data streams in order to monetize the discoveries and insights. Motif discovery and deep learning platforms are emerging to visualize sensor data, to search for patterns and to build application that can monitor real time streams efficiently. In his session at @ThingsExpo, ...
SYS-CON Events announced today that LeaseWeb USA, a cloud Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) provider, will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. LeaseWeb is one of the world's largest hosting brands. The company helps customers define, develop and deploy IT infrastructure tailored to their exact business needs, by combining various kinds cloud solutions.
SYS-CON Events announced today that 910Telecom will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Housed in the classic Denver Gas & Electric Building, 910 15th St., 910Telecom is a carrier-neutral telecom hotel located in the heart of Denver. Adjacent to CenturyLink, AT&T, and Denver Main, 910Telecom offers connectivity to all major carriers, Internet service providers, Internet backbones and ...
Big Data, cloud, analytics, contextual information, wearable tech, sensors, mobility, and WebRTC: together, these advances have created a perfect storm of technologies that are disrupting and transforming classic communications models and ecosystems. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Erik Perotti, Senior Manager of New Ventures on Plantronics’ Innovation team, provided an overview of this technological shift, including associated business and consumer communications impacts, and opportunities it ...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Venafi, the Immune System for the Internet™ and the leading provider of Next Generation Trust Protection, will exhibit at @DevOpsSummit at 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Venafi is the Immune System for the Internet™ that protects the foundation of all cybersecurity – cryptographic keys and digital certificates – so they can’t be misused by bad guys in attacks...
It’s 2016: buildings are smart, connected and the IoT is fundamentally altering how control and operating systems work and speak to each other. Platforms across the enterprise are networked via inexpensive sensors to collect massive amounts of data for analytics, information management, and insights that can be used to continuously improve operations. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Brian Chemel, Co-Founder and CTO of Digital Lumens, will explore: The benefits sensor-networked systems bring to ...
Manufacturers are embracing the Industrial Internet the same way consumers are leveraging Fitbits – to improve overall health and wellness. Both can provide consistent measurement, visibility, and suggest performance improvements customized to help reach goals. Fitbit users can view real-time data and make adjustments to increase their activity. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Mark Bernardo Professional Services Leader, Americas, at GE Digital, discussed how leveraging the Industrial Internet a...
There will be new vendors providing applications, middleware, and connected devices to support the thriving IoT ecosystem. This essentially means that electronic device manufacturers will also be in the software business. Many will be new to building embedded software or robust software. This creates an increased importance on software quality, particularly within the Industrial Internet of Things where business-critical applications are becoming dependent on products controlled by software. Qua...
In addition to all the benefits, IoT is also bringing new kind of customer experience challenges - cars that unlock themselves, thermostats turning houses into saunas and baby video monitors broadcasting over the internet. This list can only increase because while IoT services should be intuitive and simple to use, the delivery ecosystem is a myriad of potential problems as IoT explodes complexity. So finding a performance issue is like finding the proverbial needle in the haystack.
The 19th International Cloud Expo has announced that its Call for Papers is open. Cloud Expo, to be held November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, brings together Cloud Computing, Big Data, Internet of Things, DevOps, Digital Transformation, Microservices and WebRTC to one location. With cloud computing driving a higher percentage of enterprise IT budgets every year, it becomes increasingly important to plant your flag in this fast-expanding business opportuni...