|By Tony Baer||
|November 1, 2012 10:00 AM EDT||
With Strata, IBM IOD, and Teradata Partners conferences all occurring this week, it’s not surprising that this is a big week for Hadoop-related announcements. The common thread of announcements is essentially, “We know that Hadoop is not known for performance, but we’re getting better at it, and we’re going to make it look more like SQL.” In essence, Hadoop and SQL worlds are converging, and you’re going to be able to perform interactive BI analytics on it.
The opportunity and challenge of Big Data from new platforms such as Hadoop is that it opens a new range of analytics. On one hand, Big Data analytics have updated and revived programmatic access to data, which happened to be the norm prior to the advent of SQL. There are plenty of scenarios where taking programmatic approaches are far more efficient, such as dealing with time series data or graph analysis to map many-to-many relationships.
It also leverages in-memory data grids such as Oracle Coherence, IBM WebSphere eXtreme Scale, GigaSpaces and others, and, where programmatic development (usually in Java) proved more efficient for accessing highly changeable data for web applications where traditional paths to the database would have been I/O-constrained. Conversely Advanced SQL platforms such as Greenplum and Teradata Aster have provided support for MapReduce-like programming because, even with structured data, sometimes using a Java programmatic framework is a more efficient way to rapidly slice through volumes of data.
Until now, Hadoop has not until now been for the SQL-minded. The initial path was, find someone to do data exploration inside Hadoop, but once you’re ready to do repeatable analysis, ETL (or ELT) it into a SQL data warehouse. That’s been the pattern with Oracle Big Data Appliance (use Oracle loader and data integration tools), and most Advanced SQL platforms; most data integration tools provide Hadoop connectors that spawn their own MapReduce programs to ferry data out of Hadoop. Some integration tool providers, like Informatica, offer tools to automate parsing of Hadoop data. Teradata Aster and Hortonworks have been talking up the potentials of HCatalog, in actuality an enhanced version of Hive with RESTful interfaces, cost optimizers, and so on, to provide a more SQL friendly view of data residing inside Hadoop.
But when you talk analytics, you can’t simply write off the legions of SQL developers that populate enterprise IT shops. And beneath the veneer of chaos, there is an implicit order to most so-called “unstructured” data that is within the reach programmatic transformation approaches that in the long run could likely be automated or packaged inside a tool.
At Ovum, we have long believed that for Big Data to crossover to the mainstream enterprise, that it must become a first-class citizen with IT and the data center. The early pattern of skunk works projects, led by elite, highly specialized teams of software engineers from Internet firms to solve Internet-style problems (e.g., ad placement, search optimization, customer online experience, etc.) are not the problems of mainstream enterprises. And neither is the model of recruiting high-priced talent to work exclusively on Hadoop sustainable for most organizations; such staffing models are not sustainable for mainstream enterprises. It means that Big Data must be consumable by the mainstream of SQL developers.
Making Hadoop more SQL-like is hardly new
Hive and Pig became Apache Hadoop projects because of the need for SQL-like metadata management and data transformation languages, respectively; HBase emerged because of the need for a table store to provide a more interactive face – although as a very sparse, rudimentary column store, does not provide the efficiency of an optimized SQL database (or the extreme performance of some columnar variants). Sqoop in turn provides a way to pipeline SQL data into Hadoop, a use case that will grow more common as organizations look to Hadoop to provide scalable and cheaper storage than commercial SQL. While these Hadoop subprojects that did not exactly make Hadoop look like SQL, they provided building blocks from which many of this week’s announcements leverage.
Progress marches on
One train of thought is that if Hadoop can look more like a SQL database, more operations could be performed inside Hadoop. That’s the theme behind Informatica’s long-awaited enhancement of its PowerCenter transformation tool to work natively inside Hadoop. Until now, PowerCenter could extract data from Hadoop, but the extracts would have to be moved to a staging server where the transformation would be performed for loading to the familiar SQL data warehouse target. The new offering, PowerCenter Big Data Edition, now supports an ELT pattern that uses the power of MapReduce processes inside Hadoop to perform transformations. The significance is that PowerCenter users now have a choice: load the transformed data to HBase, or continue loading to SQL.
There is growing support for packaging Hadoop inside a common hardware appliance with Advanced SQL. EMC Greenplum was the first out of gate with DCA (Data Computing Appliance) that bundles its own distribution of Apache Hadoop (not to be confused with Greenplum MR, a software only product that is accompanied by a MapR Hadoop distro).
Teradata Aster has just joined the fray with Big Analytics Appliance, bundling the Hortonworks Data Platform Hadoop; this move was hardly surprising given their growing partnership around HCatalog, an enhancement of the SQL-like Hive metadata layer of Hadoop that adds features such as a cost optimizer and RESTful interfaces that make the metadata accessible without the need to learn MapReduce or Java. With HCatalog, data inside Hadoop looks like another Aster data table.
Not coincidentally, there is a growing array of analytic tools that are designed to execute natively inside Hadoop. For now they are from emerging players like Datameer (providing a spreadsheet-like metaphor; which just announced an app store-like marketplace for developers), Karmasphere (providing an application develop tool for Hadoop analytic apps), or a more recent entry, Platfora (which caches subsets of Hadoop data in memory with an optimized, high performance fractal index).
Yet, even with Hadoop analytic tooling, there will still be a desire to disguise Hadoop as a SQL data store, and not just for data mapping purposes. Hadapt has been promoting a variant where it squeezes SQL tables inside HDFS file structures – not exactly a no-brainer as it must shoehorn tables into a file system with arbitrary data block sizes. Hadapt’s approach sounds like the converse of object-relational stores, but in this case, it is dealing with a physical rather than a logical impedance mismatch.
Hadapt promotes the ability to query Hadoop directly using SQL. Now, so does Cloudera. It has just announced Impala, a SQL-based alternative to MapReduce for querying the SQL-like Hive metadata store, supporting most but not all forms of SQL processing (based on SQL 92; Impala lacks triggers, which Cloudera deems low priority). Both Impala and MapReduce rely on parallel processing, but that’s where the similarity ends. MapReduce is a blunt instrument, requiring Java or other programming languages; it splits a job into multiple, concurrently, pipelined tasks where, at each step along the way, reads data, processes it, and writes it back to disk and then passes it to the next task.
Conversely, Impala takes a shared nothing, MPP approach to processing SQL jobs against Hive; using HDFS, Cloudera claims roughly 4x performance against MapReduce; if the data is in HBase, Cloudera claims performance multiples up to a factor of 30. For now, Impala only supports row-based views, but with columnar (on Cloudera’s roadmap), performance could double. Cloudera plans to release a real-time query (RTQ) offering that, in effect, is a commercially supported version of Impala.
By contrast, Teradata Aster and Hortonworks promote a SQL MapReduce approach that leverages HCatalog, an incubating Apache project that is a superset of Hive that Cloudera does not currently include in its roadmap. For now, Cloudera claims bragging rights for performance with Impala; over time, Teradata Aster will promote the manageability of its single appliance, and with the appliance has the opportunity to counter with hardware optimization.
The road to SQL/programmatic convergence
Either way – and this is of interest only to purists – any SQL extension to Hadoop will be outside the Hadoop project. But again, that’s an argument for purists. What’s more important to enterprises is getting the right tool for the job – whether it is the flexibility of SQL or raw power of programmatic approaches.
SQL convergence is the next major battleground for Hadoop. Cloudera is for now shunning HCatalog, an approach backed by Hortonworks and partner Teradata Aster. The open question is whether Hortonworks can instigate a stampede of third parties to overcome Cloudera’s resistance. It appears that beyond Hive, the SQL face of Hadoop will become a vendor-differentiated layer.
Part of conversion will involve a mix of cross-training and tooling automation. Savvy SQL developers will cross train to pick up some of the Java- or Java-like programmatic frameworks that will be emerging. Tooling will help lower the bar, reducing the degree of specialized skills necessary.
And for programming frameworks, in the long run, MapReduce won’t be the only game in town. It will always be useful for large-scale jobs requiring brute force, parallel, sequential processing. But the emerging YARN framework, which deconstructs MapReduce to generalize the resource management function, will provide the management umbrella for ensuring that different frameworks don’t crash into one another by trying to grab the same resources. But YARN is not yet ready for primetime – for now it only supports the batch job pattern of MapReduce. And that means that YARN is not yet ready for Impala or vice versa.
Of course, mainstreaming Hadoop – and Big Data platforms in general – is more than just a matter of making it all look like SQL. Big Data platforms must be manageable and operable by the people who are already in IT; they will need some new skills and grow accustomed to some new practices (like exploratory analytics), but the new platforms must also look and act familiar enough. Not all announcements this week were about SQL; for instance, MapR is throwing a gauntlet to the Apache usual suspects by extending its management umbrella beyond the proprietary NFS-compatible file system that is its core IP to the MapReduce framework and HBase, making a similar promise of high performance.
On the horizon, EMC Isilon and NetApp are proposing alternatives promising a more efficient file system but at the “cost” of separating the storage from the analytic processing. And at some point, the Hadoop vendor community will have to come to grips with capacity utilization issues, because in the mainstream enterprise world, no CFO will approve the purchase of large clusters or grids that get only 10 – 15 percent utilization. Keep an eye on VMware’s Project Serengeti.
They must be good citizens in data centers that need to maximize resource (e.g., virtualization, optimized storage); must comply with existing data stewardship policies and practices; and must fully support existing enterprise data and platform security practices. These are all topics for another day.
You may also be interested in:
- Making Hadoop safe for clusterphobics
- Fast data hits the big data fast lane
- EMC's Hadoop strategy cuts to the chase
- Big data consolidation race enters home stretch, as Teradata buys Aster Data
- Oracle fills another gap in its big data offering
- VMforce: Cloud mates with Java marriage of necessity for VMware and Salesforce.com
- HP buys Fortify, and it's about time
SYS-CON Events announced today that Ericsson has been named “Gold Sponsor” of SYS-CON's @ThingsExpo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York, New York. Ericsson is a world leader in the rapidly changing environment of communications technology – providing equipment, software and services to enable transformation through mobility. Some 40 percent of global mobile traffic runs through networks we have supplied. More than 1 billion subscribers around the world re...
May. 1, 2016 07:30 AM EDT Reads: 890
There is an ever-growing explosion of new devices that are connected to the Internet using “cloud” solutions. This rapid growth is creating a massive new demand for efficient access to data. And it’s not just about connecting to that data anymore. This new demand is bringing new issues and challenges and it is important for companies to scale for the coming growth. And with that scaling comes the need for greater security, gathering and data analysis, storage, connectivity and, of course, the...
May. 1, 2016 07:00 AM EDT Reads: 781
SYS-CON Events announced today that DatacenterDynamics has been named “Media Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7–9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. DatacenterDynamics is a brand of DCD Group, a global B2B media and publishing company that develops products to help senior professionals in the world's most ICT dependent organizations make risk-based infrastructure and capacity decisions.
May. 1, 2016 06:30 AM EDT Reads: 2,479
SYS-CON Events announced today that Peak 10, Inc., a national IT infrastructure and cloud services provider, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Peak 10 provides reliable, tailored data center and network services, cloud and managed services. Its solutions are designed to scale and adapt to customers’ changing business needs, enabling them to lower costs, improve performance and focus inter...
May. 1, 2016 12:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,070
You think you know what’s in your data. But do you? Most organizations are now aware of the business intelligence represented by their data. Data science stands to take this to a level you never thought of – literally. The techniques of data science, when used with the capabilities of Big Data technologies, can make connections you had not yet imagined, helping you discover new insights and ask new questions of your data. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Sarbjit Sarkaria, data science team lead ...
Apr. 30, 2016 10:45 PM EDT Reads: 699
So, you bought into the current machine learning craze and went on to collect millions/billions of records from this promising new data source. Now, what do you do with them? Too often, the abundance of data quickly turns into an abundance of problems. How do you extract that "magic essence" from your data without falling into the common pitfalls? In her session at @ThingsExpo, Natalia Ponomareva, Software Engineer at Google, will provide tips on how to be successful in large scale machine lear...
Apr. 30, 2016 10:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,107
In his session at @ThingsExpo, Chris Klein, CEO and Co-founder of Rachio, will discuss next generation communities that are using IoT to create more sustainable, intelligent communities. One example is Sterling Ranch, a 10,000 home development that – with the help of Siemens – will integrate IoT technology into the community to provide residents with energy and water savings as well as intelligent security. Everything from stop lights to sprinkler systems to building infrastructures will run ef...
Apr. 30, 2016 05:30 PM EDT Reads: 724
Whether your IoT service is connecting cars, homes, appliances, wearable, cameras or other devices, one question hangs in the balance – how do you actually make money from this service? The ability to turn your IoT service into profit requires the ability to create a monetization strategy that is flexible, scalable and working for you in real-time. It must be a transparent, smoothly implemented strategy that all stakeholders – from customers to the board – will be able to understand and comprehe...
Apr. 30, 2016 04:45 PM EDT Reads: 1,069
Machine Learning helps make complex systems more efficient. By applying advanced Machine Learning techniques such as Cognitive Fingerprinting, wind project operators can utilize these tools to learn from collected data, detect regular patterns, and optimize their own operations. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Stuart Gillen, Director of Business Development at SparkCognition, will discuss how research has demonstrated the value of Machine Learning in delivering next generation analytics to im...
Apr. 30, 2016 04:15 PM EDT Reads: 1,669
This is not a small hotel event. It is also not a big vendor party where politicians and entertainers are more important than real content. This is Cloud Expo, the world's longest-running conference and exhibition focused on Cloud Computing and all that it entails. If you want serious presentations and valuable insight about Cloud Computing for three straight days, then register now for Cloud Expo.
Apr. 30, 2016 02:30 PM EDT Reads: 1,721
IoT device adoption is growing at staggering rates, and with it comes opportunity for developers to meet consumer demand for an ever more connected world. Wireless communication is the key part of the encompassing components of any IoT device. Wireless connectivity enhances the device utility at the expense of ease of use and deployment challenges. Since connectivity is fundamental for IoT device development, engineers must understand how to overcome the hurdles inherent in incorporating multipl...
Apr. 30, 2016 02:15 PM EDT Reads: 1,458
The increasing popularity of the Internet of Things necessitates that our physical and cognitive relationship with wearable technology will change rapidly in the near future. This advent means logging has become a thing of the past. Before, it was on us to track our own data, but now that data is automatically available. What does this mean for mHealth and the "connected" body? In her session at @ThingsExpo, Lisa Calkins, CEO and co-founder of Amadeus Consulting, will discuss the impact of wea...
Apr. 30, 2016 01:15 PM EDT Reads: 674
SYS-CON Events announced today that Stratoscale, the software company developing the next generation data center operating system, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Stratoscale is revolutionizing the data center with a zero-to-cloud-in-minutes solution. With Stratoscale’s hardware-agnostic, Software Defined Data Center (SDDC) solution to store everything, run anything and scale everywhere...
Apr. 30, 2016 01:15 PM EDT Reads: 1,537
Angular 2 is a complete re-write of the popular framework AngularJS. Programming in Angular 2 is greatly simplified – now it's a component-based well-performing framework. This immersive one-day workshop at 18th Cloud Expo, led by Yakov Fain, a Java Champion and a co-founder of the IT consultancy Farata Systems and the product company SuranceBay, will provide you with everything you wanted to know about Angular 2.
Apr. 30, 2016 12:45 PM EDT Reads: 1,708
SYS-CON Events announced today that Men & Mice, the leading global provider of DNS, DHCP and IP address management overlay solutions, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. The Men & Mice Suite overlay solution is already known for its powerful application in heterogeneous operating environments, enabling enterprises to scale without fuss. Building on a solid range of diverse platform support,...
Apr. 30, 2016 12:00 PM EDT Reads: 2,300
You deployed your app with the Bluemix PaaS and it's gaining some serious traction, so it's time to make some tweaks. Did you design your application in a way that it can scale in the cloud? Were you even thinking about the cloud when you built the app? If not, chances are your app is going to break. Check out this webcast to learn various techniques for designing applications that will scale successfully in Bluemix, for the confidence you need to take your apps to the next level and beyond.
Apr. 30, 2016 11:30 AM EDT Reads: 1,474
We’ve worked with dozens of early adopters across numerous industries and will debunk common misperceptions, which starts with understanding that many of the connected products we’ll use over the next 5 years are already products, they’re just not yet connected. With an IoT product, time-in-market provides much more essential feedback than ever before. Innovation comes from what you do with the data that the connected product provides in order to enhance the customer experience and optimize busi...
Apr. 30, 2016 11:15 AM EDT Reads: 892
Increasing IoT connectivity is forcing enterprises to find elegant solutions to organize and visualize all incoming data from these connected devices with re-configurable dashboard widgets to effectively allow rapid decision-making for everything from immediate actions in tactical situations to strategic analysis and reporting. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Shikhir Singh, Senior Developer Relations Manager at Sencha, will discuss how to create HTML5 dashboards that interact with IoT devic...
Apr. 30, 2016 11:00 AM EDT Reads: 937
Artificial Intelligence has the potential to massively disrupt IoT. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, AJ Abdallat, CEO of Beyond AI, will discuss what the five main drivers are in Artificial Intelligence that could shape the future of the Internet of Things. AJ Abdallat is CEO of Beyond AI. He has over 20 years of management experience in the fields of artificial intelligence, sensors, instruments, devices and software for telecommunications, life sciences, environmental monitoring, process...
Apr. 30, 2016 11:00 AM EDT Reads: 902
Digital payments using wearable devices such as smart watches, fitness trackers, and payment wristbands are an increasing area of focus for industry participants, and consumer acceptance from early trials and deployments has encouraged some of the biggest names in technology and banking to continue their push to drive growth in this nascent market. Wearable payment systems may utilize near field communication (NFC), radio frequency identification (RFID), or quick response (QR) codes and barcodes...
Apr. 30, 2016 10:00 AM EDT Reads: 731