Welcome!

Cloud Security Authors: Liz McMillan, Pat Romanski, Elizabeth White, Yeshim Deniz, Terry Ray

Related Topics: @CloudExpo, Microservices Expo, Containers Expo Blog, Cloud Security, @DXWorldExpo, SDN Journal

@CloudExpo: Blog Feed Post

Elastic Scaling of APIs in the Cloud

Here’s a quick set of practices we used to achieve our goal

As an Enterprise Architect for Intel IT, I worked with IT Engineering and our Software and Services group on the elastic scaling of the APIs that power the Intel AppUp® center. Our goal was to scale our APIs to at least 10x our baseline capacity (measured in transactions per second) by moving them to our private cloud, and ultimately to be able to connect to a public cloud provider for additional availability and scalability. Here’s a quick set of practices we used to achieve our goal:

  1. Virtualize everything.  This may seem obvious and is probably a no-op for new APIs, but in our case we were using a bare-metal installs at our gateway and database layers (the API servers themselves were already running as VMs). While our gateway hardware appliance had very good scalability, we knew we were ultimately targeting the public cloud and that our need for dynamic scaling could exceed our ability to add new physical servers.  Using a gateway that scales in pure software virtual machines without the need for special purpose-built hardware helped us achieve our goal here.
  2. Instrument everything.  We needed to be able to correlate leading indicators like transactions per second to system load at each layer so we could begin to identify bottlenecks. We also needed to characterize our workload for testing – understanding a real-world sequence of API methods and mix/ordering of reads and writes. This allowed us to create a viable set of load tests.
  3. Identify bottlenecks.  We used Apache jmeter to generate load and identify points where latency became an issue, correlating that against system loads to find out where we had reached saturation and needed to scale.
  4. Define a scaling unit. In our case, we were using dedicated DB instances rather than database-as-a-service, so we decided to scale all three layers together. We identified how many API servers would saturate the DB layer, and how many gateways we would need to manage the traffic. We then defined a collection of VMs that would provision all of these VMs together. We might have scaled each layer independently had our API been architected differently, or if we were building from scratch on database-as-a-service.

    Example collection for elastic scaling

  5. Repeat. The above let us scale from 1x to about 5x or 6x without any problem. However, when we hit 6x scaling we discovered that a new bottleneck: the overhead of replicating commits across the database instances. We went back to the drawing board and redesigned the back end for eventual consistency so we could reduce database load.
  6. Automate everything.  We use Nagios and Puppetto monitor and respond to health changes. A new scaling unit is provisioned when we hit predefined performance thresholds.

     

    Automation/Orchestration workflow

  7. Don’t forget to test scaling down.  If you set a threshold for removing capacity, it’s important to make sure that your workflow allows for a graceful shutdown and doesn’t impact calls that are in progress.

The above approach got us to 10x our initial capacity in a single data center. Because of some of our architecture decisions (coarse-grained scaling units and eventual consistency) we were then able to add a GLB and scale out to multiple data centers – first to another internal private cloud and then to a public cloud provider.

Read the original blog entry...

More Stories By Application Security

This blog references our expert posts on application and web services security.

IoT & Smart Cities Stories
DXWorldEXPO LLC announced today that All in Mobile, a mobile app development company from Poland, will exhibit at the 22nd International CloudEXPO | DXWorldEXPO. All In Mobile is a mobile app development company from Poland. Since 2014, they maintain passion for developing mobile applications for enterprises and startups worldwide.
Founded in 2000, Chetu Inc. is a global provider of customized software development solutions and IT staff augmentation services for software technology providers. By providing clients with unparalleled niche technology expertise and industry experience, Chetu has become the premiere long-term, back-end software development partner for start-ups, SMBs, and Fortune 500 companies. Chetu is headquartered in Plantation, Florida, with thirteen offices throughout the U.S. and abroad.
DXWorldEXPO | CloudEXPO are the world's most influential, independent events where Cloud Computing was coined and where technology buyers and vendors meet to experience and discuss the big picture of Digital Transformation and all of the strategies, tactics, and tools they need to realize their goals. Sponsors of DXWorldEXPO | CloudEXPO benefit from unmatched branding, profile building and lead generation opportunities.
The standardization of container runtimes and images has sparked the creation of an almost overwhelming number of new open source projects that build on and otherwise work with these specifications. Of course, there's Kubernetes, which orchestrates and manages collections of containers. It was one of the first and best-known examples of projects that make containers truly useful for production use. However, more recently, the container ecosystem has truly exploded. A service mesh like Istio addr...
CloudEXPO New York 2018, colocated with DXWorldEXPO New York 2018 will be held November 11-13, 2018, in New York City and will bring together Cloud Computing, FinTech and Blockchain, Digital Transformation, Big Data, Internet of Things, DevOps, AI, Machine Learning and WebRTC to one location.
@DevOpsSummit at Cloud Expo, taking place November 12-13 in New York City, NY, is co-located with 22nd international CloudEXPO | first international DXWorldEXPO and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. The widespread success of cloud computing is driving the DevOps revolution in enterprise IT. Now as never before, development teams must communicate and collaborate in a dynamic, 24/7/365 environment. There is no time t...
DXWordEXPO New York 2018, colocated with CloudEXPO New York 2018 will be held November 11-13, 2018, in New York City and will bring together Cloud Computing, FinTech and Blockchain, Digital Transformation, Big Data, Internet of Things, DevOps, AI, Machine Learning and WebRTC to one location.
SYS-CON Events announced today that DatacenterDynamics has been named “Media Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7–9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. DatacenterDynamics is a brand of DCD Group, a global B2B media and publishing company that develops products to help senior professionals in the world's most ICT dependent organizations make risk-based infrastructure and capacity decisions.
Cloud-enabled transformation has evolved from cost saving measure to business innovation strategy -- one that combines the cloud with cognitive capabilities to drive market disruption. Learn how you can achieve the insight and agility you need to gain a competitive advantage. Industry-acclaimed CTO and cloud expert, Shankar Kalyana presents. Only the most exceptional IBMers are appointed with the rare distinction of IBM Fellow, the highest technical honor in the company. Shankar has also receive...
Headquartered in Plainsboro, NJ, Synametrics Technologies has provided IT professionals and computer systems developers since 1997. Based on the success of their initial product offerings (WinSQL and DeltaCopy), the company continues to create and hone innovative products that help its customers get more from their computer applications, databases and infrastructure. To date, over one million users around the world have chosen Synametrics solutions to help power their accelerated business or per...