|By Albert Fruz||
|January 3, 2014 09:00 AM EST||
Computer security has become much harder to manage in recent years, and this is due to the fact that attackers continuously come up with new and more effective ways to attack our systems. As attackers become increasingly sophisticated we as security professionals must ensure that they do not have free rein over the systems that we are hired to protect. An attack vector that many people forget to consider is the boot process, which is almost completely controlled by the BIOS.
The BIOS is a privileged piece of software that is generally ignored by day-to-day users and thus they are usually unable to comprehend the importance of it in our computers. The Basic Input/Output System was first invented by Gary Kildall for use in his operating system CP/M and this became what we now know as the conventional BIOS system. The BIOS appeared in IBM-compatible PCs around 1975 and was used extensively in the CP/M operating system. This was later used in the MSDOS systems where it was known as DOS BIOS. These systems were only responsible for basic preboot hardware initializations before handing over control to the bootloader. This was fine 30 years ago, when software was simpler and attacks were not very predominant, thus the BIOS was not designed with security in mind. However, in today's world this is no longer the case. BIOS security lacks several features that make it vulnerable to external attack.
These are some notable attacks carried out against BIOS systems:
Chernobyl Attack (1998) - Also known as CIH or Spacefiller was the first major attack on BIOS systems. This virus installs on the windows memory and hooks into file access calls and infects all the currently executing programs. Then the virus tries to flash the BIOS rom by filling it with zeros. The other payload infects the Master Boot Record (MBR) by filling the first megabyte of the hard disk with zeros.
Mebromi (2012) - Is made up of a BIOS rootkit, MBR rootkit, Trojan downloader and PE infector. This Trojan deletes a specific registry value and checks for the BIOS manufacturer. If it's Award BIOS, it then infects the BIOS ROM and in turn infects the Master BOOT Record (MBR) and alters it allowing the execution of an infected program at each Operating System start-up.
We attempt to prevent such attacks by outlining several attack vectors and also suggest several mechanisms for the mitigation of attacks against the BIOS.
BIOS (Basic Input Output System)
Basic Input/Output System (BIOS), also known as the system BIOS or ROM BIOS, is a standard defining a firmware interface. BIOS software is built into the PC, and is the first software run by a PC when powered on. The fundamental purposes of the BIOS are to initialize and test the system hardware components, and to start the boot loader or an operating system from a secondary storage device. It also takes care of essential system functions such as power management and temperature regulation. It provides an abstraction layer for the underlying hardware by providing a consistent way for operating systems and application programs to interact with various input/output devices.
Changes in system hardware are abstracted by the BIOS from programs that use BIOS services instead of directly accessing the hardware. BIOS software is stored on a non-volatile ROM chip on the motherboard. Its unique design makes it compatible for particular models of computer, interfacing with various devices that make up the complementary chipset of the system. In modern PCs the BIOS contents are stored on an EEPROM chip.
An EEPROM chip or Electronically Erasable Programmable Read only memory is a type of non-volatile memory used by many electronic devices that requires small amounts of data to be stored for quick access. The contents of an EEPROM chip can be flashed, i.e., they can be overwritten with new data. This allows BIOS software to be easily upgraded to add new features and bug fixes. This feature is also one of the reasons that BIOS chipsets are vulnerable to attack.
Why BIOS Is in Blue
Most BIOS Screens will be blue; this is due to how the BIOS Manufacturers implement general BIOS color attributes. BIOS Color Attributes are 8-bit values where the lower 4 bits represent the character color and the higher 4 bits represent the background color. In BIOS, to print a white character in blue background the ‘BIOS colour attribute' would be set to a hexadecimal value of 0x1F.
Under certain conditions, setting the highest bit of the background color may cause the text to blink instead of making the background color intensified. In this context the highest bit of the background color should be kept low according to the BIOS color attribute distribution. As a result the Blue color which comprises value '1′ in hexadecimal is generally used for an uninterrupted BIOS display with intensified background with clear text.
Top BIOS Manufacturers
BIOS software is developed by several companies around the world and are usually deeply integrated with the system motherboard. Several of the most popular BIOS manufacturers are:
- American Mega Trends
Role of BIOS
The BIOS has an essential role in the boot process of the computer also known as bootstrapping. It initializes system hardware, manages ACPI, and regulates CPU temperatures during the booting process. The major responsibilities of the BIOS are listed below:
- Establish Trust: The BIOS is responsible for verifying the integrity of all the hardware components in the system and also to authenticate them before use. This is done with the help of Core Root of Trust Measurement (CRTM), which basically checks if the hardware is valid and that its integrity has not been compromised.
- Test Hardware: The secondary functionality of the BIOS is to initialize and test the hardware present on the computer before it's used. Hardware such as the motherboard, chipset and memory are included in this test. This is generally carried out during POST (Power-On-Self-Test).
- Load additional Modules: Several devices present on the computer may require additional firmware for its proper functioning. The BIOS ensures that such additional firmware modules are loaded and executed. These may be stored in the BIOS chip itself or some secondary storage device.
- Boot Device Selection: After the above steps have been carried out, the BIOS starts to detect a valid boot device, e.g., USB drives, dard disk, etc. Once such a device has been found it executes the bootloader found on that device.
- Start Operating System: After this the actual bootstrapping process begins, the bootloader starts to execute and begins to load the OS kernel into memory. Once the kernel has been initialized the BIOS transfers full control to the Operating System.
System BIOS can be of two types namely:
- Legacy BIOS
- BIOS based upon the UEFI specification
Conventional BIOS (Legacy BIOS)
The Legacy BIOS or conventional BIOS is the tried and true BIOS type that has been around for years. It's generally a 16-bit program that is flashed onto a ROM chip and placed in the motherboard of the computer. This type of BIOS is very outdated and more vulnerable to attack, therefore it's advisable to use a newer and more stable specification.
The key component in conventional BIOS is a boot block. This part is logically separated from other parts of the BIOS and initially executed during the BIOS boot process. Then the boot block checks the integrity of the remaining firmware in BIOS and if any is corrupted recovers those. The boot block then initializes almost all the hardware associated with the system by using a Power-On-Self-Test (POST). During this procedure low-level hardware components like Memory, CPU, Chipset, etc., are initialized.
After this process, it then loads other option ROMS like Video Cards, SCSI Controller Cards, and Network Boot ROM that have their own BIOS software. This Option ROMS could inform the BIOS about its functionality, and then it could be called later on in the boot process depending on the order the user had selected. Then the BIOS checks the Master BOOT Record (MBR) in the order of the boot device's priority. If any storage device has a valid data that relates to MBR, it is selected. MBR then points to a corresponding boot loader of an operating system and thus in turns loads the operating system.
In a conventional Boot process, the System Management Mode (SMM) can be initiated by using SMI handlers and ACPI table's code. System Management Mode is a 32-bit mode that runs on high-privileged mode that can override almost all the hardware security mechanisms of the protected mode. In order to change to SMM mode, BIOS loads SMI handlers and initializes the ACPI tables and codes
Legacy BIOS Boot Process
When a computer is first powered on the BIOS is the first piece of software that is executed. The boot block then executes a POST (Power-On-Self-Test), thereby ensuring that all the hardware on the system is valid and accounted for. After the POST screen the user has the option to load the BIOS screen or to continue booting the current operating system instead. This is done by pressing a pre-designated key on the keyboard. This key may vary depending on the BIOS manufacturer. The BIOS then checks if any additional pieces of firmware have to be loaded for individual devices on the computer if so, then these modules are loaded and executed.
Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI)
UEFI (Unified Extensible Firmware Interface) is a specification that was first designed by Intel in the 1990s for its Itanium range of computer systems. It was originally called the EFI specification and was intended to be a better replacement for legacy BIOS systems. UEFI has several advantages over the conventional BIOS and is radically different from these older systems.
The UEFI specification defines a programmable software interface that lies between the device firmware and the operating system. It provides an almost OS-like interface to device firmware. Depending on the manufacturer it may lie on top of the BIOS but it's generally placed in the /EFI/ directory on some form of non-volatile memory. This may either be a NAND chip on the motherboard, a hard drive or even on a network share.
Differences Between UEFI and Legacy BIOS
There are several differences between conventional BIOS and UEFI systems and many of them add greater functionality and power to the computer. It also provides a more efficient and secure booting mechanism.
- Larger Address Space: Conventional BIOS were forced to work in a 16-bit mode with a maximum of 1mb addressable space. UEFI allows running in 32- and 64-bit mode allowing larger and more sophisticated programs to be run by the UEFI.
- Support for Larger File Systems: Traditional BIOS only supports the booting of disks that have MBR partitions. MBR partitioning schemes only support 4 partitions per disk and a maximum size of 2TB. UEFI supports the booting of GPT partitions (GUID partitions), which allow the booting of extremely large disks up to 8Zb.
- Improved Security Capabilities: The UEFI specification also improves on the security aspects of the older BIOS systems. It supports several security features such as secure boot. It also has provisions for providing basic cryptographic and public key infrastructure.
- CPU independent design: UEFI has employed a CPU independent design methodology, i.e., it can run on many different types of architectures. The code available is compiled differently for the required platform.
- Powerful Execution Environment: The UEFI specification provides a much more powerful execution environment for computers. It allows special features such as booting over a network, using the mouse, ACPI control and even browsing the web.
- Improved Performance: UEFI-compliant operating systems have been seen to have a significant performance boost not just during the boot process but also during running and powering off the system.
Windows 8 uses UEFI
UEFI, although supported by several operating system vendors for years, has not seen widespread adoption until the release of Windows 8. Windows 8 has tried to incorporate the best parts of UEFI into their latest operating system release particularly the secure boot feature.
One of UEFI's most interesting feature is called Secure Boot; it allows you to boot only an authenticated OS kernel. Windows 8 relies heavily on this method to ensure that only authenticated firmware with a validated kernel image can be booted. This is quite different from older bootstrapping methodologies where any kind of bootloading code can be loaded and executed by the BIOS.
In secure a boot before the BIOS gives full control to the OS, bootloader makes sure that the firmware has been signed. This is done with the help of cryptographic signatures that are embedded on the firmware by the OEM. During the boot process the firmware will compare the platform key with the key present in the firmware of each device. This comparison is carried out between a database of authenticated valid keys; if the key is allowed then the firmware is allowed to execute, otherwise it is rejected.
This allows only authenticated devices to be loaded and ensures that malicious bootloader code is not loaded and executed. The safe boot mechanism in Windows 8 significantly reduces the chances of boot sector viruses and bootkits from launching and affecting the boot process of the machine.
UEFI Boot Process
The UEFI boot process is much like the boot process in conventional BIOS with a few minor changes. The process is divided into stages that take place sequentially and ends with the complete handover of control to the operating system. UEFI booting runs in a 32-bit or 64-bit protected mode on the CPU, not in a 16-bit mode, unlike legacy BIOS.
UEFI also starts with a small amount of code that begins the execution of the entire booting process. This phase is called the security phase (SEC) and it acts as the core root of trust. This is followed by the Pre-EFI initialization (PEI). This mode is similar to the Legacy bios pre-boot initialization phase in which device firmware is checked before boot. Then the driver execution environment is started where the actual initialization of extra device drivers takes place; devices such as network cards and graphic cards are checked in this phase.
The boot device is selected during the BDS (Boot Device Selection) phase. This then transfers control to the bootloader that is located in a GPT partition; the bootloader handles the loading of the OS kernel into memory.
Common BIOS Threats
BIOS is always written to a non-volatile storage device such as an EEPROM which allows the content of the ROM to be overwritten to introduce bug fixes and updates for the particular BIOS version. However this also has great potential for misuse such that malicious programs may also have the ability to modify the contents of the ROM disk if given enough access.
User Initiated Attack
This type of attack is carried out by an end user who uses an unauthenticated file to update the BIOS.. This can be carried out by an end user who doesn't have prior knowledge about the update file or a user with malicious intent.
Malware attacks can be used to exploit vulnerability in bios. The attacker opens a backdoor to the system and cause a BIOS. crash using a vulnerable update version of BIOS.
Network Based or Organizational Attack
This is a large scale and crucial attack on an organizational basis. An attacker who gets access to a compromised update server can carry out an organizational wide attack and infect all systems by rolling out all authorized BIOS. versions to malicious ones.
How Do We Mitigate Common BIOS Threats
This section describes the security measures that an organization should implement in order to secure the BIOS. Since vulnerability in BIOS is crucial point to a system, it is important that every organization should follow predefined guidelines to secure the BIOS structure. The following method can be implemented in an enterprise structure to enhance BIOS security
In order to overcome the malicious attacks on BIOS, we can implement following methods:
- Digital Authentication Method
- Rollback Prevention Method
- Physical Authentication Method
Automated Authentication Method
In this method, the authenticity of BIOS can be ensured through digital signatures. Here BIOS updates should only be installed if its authenticity is verified. Here digital signature embedded update images by BIOS manufactures will be the last level of authorization. This process can be automated by using a signature verification algorithm that ensures the validity of the digital signatures. This digital authentication method must be integrated by providing strong security features.
Rollback Prevention Method
Implement a mechanism that ensures the update images of BIOS so that it will not be rolled back to previous versions. This method ensures that if an update image is to be installed, it should be ensured that its version number is greater than the current one. This can ensure that the b BIOS version is not roll backed to a previous image that contains vulnerability.
In some cases if the current higher version has to be rolled back to a previous lesser version, i.e., if the current updated version of the BIOS contains vulnerability and there are no higher version updates to be installed and the earlier lesser version is stable than the current one. In this case the corresponding authority has to ensure that the lesser version does not contain any vulnerability.
Physical Authentication Method
This method provides the authenticity of updated images by ensuring the physical presence of the corresponding authority (system administrator). Here the authorities can verify the update images and update the BIOS, if the image is a valid one. This method can be used as a subsidiary to digital authentication method by providing as a recovery mechanism in situations like bios crash.
P2P RTC will impact the landscape of communications, shifting from traditional telephony style communications models to OTT (Over-The-Top) cloud assisted & PaaS (Platform as a Service) communication services. The P2P shift will impact many areas of our lives, from mobile communication, human interactive web services, RTC and telephony infrastructure, user federation, security and privacy implications, business costs, and scalability. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Robin Raymond, Chief Architect at Hookflash, will walk through the shifting landscape of traditional telephone and voice services ...
Nov. 25, 2014 08:00 PM EST Reads: 1,278
Scott Jenson leads a project called The Physical Web within the Chrome team at Google. Project members are working to take the scalability and openness of the web and use it to talk to the exponentially exploding range of smart devices. Nearly every company today working on the IoT comes up with the same basic solution: use my server and you'll be fine. But if we really believe there will be trillions of these devices, that just can't scale. We need a system that is open a scalable and by using the URL as a basic building block, we open this up and get the same resilience that the web enjoys.
Nov. 25, 2014 08:00 PM EST Reads: 823
The Internet of Things is tied together with a thin strand that is known as time. Coincidentally, at the core of nearly all data analytics is a timestamp. When working with time series data there are a few core principles that everyone should consider, especially across datasets where time is the common boundary. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Jim Scott, Director of Enterprise Strategy & Architecture at MapR Technologies, discussed single-value, geo-spatial, and log time series data. By focusing on enterprise applications and the data center, he will use OpenTSDB as an example t...
Nov. 25, 2014 08:00 PM EST Reads: 851
The Domain Name Service (DNS) is one of the most important components in networking infrastructure, enabling users and services to access applications by translating URLs (names) into IP addresses (numbers). Because every icon and URL and all embedded content on a website requires a DNS lookup loading complex sites necessitates hundreds of DNS queries. In addition, as more internet-enabled ‘Things' get connected, people will rely on DNS to name and find their fridges, toasters and toilets. According to a recent IDG Research Services Survey this rate of traffic will only grow. What's driving t...
Nov. 25, 2014 07:00 PM EST Reads: 1,066
Enthusiasm for the Internet of Things has reached an all-time high. In 2013 alone, venture capitalists spent more than $1 billion dollars investing in the IoT space. With "smart" appliances and devices, IoT covers wearable smart devices, cloud services to hardware companies. Nest, a Google company, detects temperatures inside homes and automatically adjusts it by tracking its user's habit. These technologies are quickly developing and with it come challenges such as bridging infrastructure gaps, abiding by privacy concerns and making the concept a reality. These challenges can't be addressed w...
Nov. 25, 2014 04:30 PM EST Reads: 1,149
Explosive growth in connected devices. Enormous amounts of data for collection and analysis. Critical use of data for split-second decision making and actionable information. All three are factors in making the Internet of Things a reality. Yet, any one factor would have an IT organization pondering its infrastructure strategy. How should your organization enhance its IT framework to enable an Internet of Things implementation? In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, James Kirkland, Chief Architect for the Internet of Things and Intelligent Systems at Red Hat, described how to revolutioniz...
Nov. 24, 2014 07:00 PM EST Reads: 1,554
Bit6 today issued a challenge to the technology community implementing Web Real Time Communication (WebRTC). To leap beyond WebRTC’s significant limitations and fully leverage its underlying value to accelerate innovation, application developers need to consider the entire communications ecosystem.
Nov. 24, 2014 12:00 PM EST Reads: 1,435
The definition of IoT is not new, in fact it’s been around for over a decade. What has changed is the public's awareness that the technology we use on a daily basis has caught up on the vision of an always on, always connected world. If you look into the details of what comprises the IoT, you’ll see that it includes everything from cloud computing, Big Data analytics, “Things,” Web communication, applications, network, storage, etc. It is essentially including everything connected online from hardware to software, or as we like to say, it’s an Internet of many different things. The difference ...
Nov. 24, 2014 11:00 AM EST Reads: 1,566
Cloud Expo 2014 TV commercials will feature @ThingsExpo, which was launched in June, 2014 at New York City's Javits Center as the largest 'Internet of Things' event in the world.
Nov. 24, 2014 09:00 AM EST Reads: 1,580
SYS-CON Events announced today that Windstream, a leading provider of advanced network and cloud communications, has been named “Silver Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9–11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York, NY. Windstream (Nasdaq: WIN), a FORTUNE 500 and S&P 500 company, is a leading provider of advanced network communications, including cloud computing and managed services, to businesses nationwide. The company also offers broadband, phone and digital TV services to consumers primarily in rural areas.
Nov. 23, 2014 07:30 PM EST Reads: 1,771
"There is a natural synchronization between the business models, the IoT is there to support ,” explained Brendan O'Brien, Co-founder and Chief Architect of Aria Systems, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at the 15th International Cloud Expo®, held Nov 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
Nov. 23, 2014 12:00 PM EST Reads: 1,710
The major cloud platforms defy a simple, side-by-side analysis. Each of the major IaaS public-cloud platforms offers their own unique strengths and functionality. Options for on-site private cloud are diverse as well, and must be designed and deployed while taking existing legacy architecture and infrastructure into account. Then the reality is that most enterprises are embarking on a hybrid cloud strategy and programs. In this Power Panel at 15th Cloud Expo (http://www.CloudComputingExpo.com), moderated by Ashar Baig, Research Director, Cloud, at Gigaom Research, Nate Gordon, Director of T...
Nov. 23, 2014 07:45 AM EST Reads: 1,719
An entirely new security model is needed for the Internet of Things, or is it? Can we save some old and tested controls for this new and different environment? In his session at @ThingsExpo, New York's at the Javits Center, Davi Ottenheimer, EMC Senior Director of Trust, reviewed hands-on lessons with IoT devices and reveal a new risk balance you might not expect. Davi Ottenheimer, EMC Senior Director of Trust, has more than nineteen years' experience managing global security operations and assessments, including a decade of leading incident response and digital forensics. He is co-author of t...
Nov. 22, 2014 05:30 PM EST Reads: 1,461
ARMONK, N.Y., Nov. 20, 2014 /PRNewswire/ -- IBM (NYSE: IBM) today announced that it is bringing a greater level of control, security and flexibility to cloud-based application development and delivery with a single-tenant version of Bluemix, IBM's platform-as-a-service. The new platform enables developers to build ap...
Nov. 22, 2014 05:30 PM EST Reads: 1,532
The security devil is always in the details of the attack: the ones you've endured, the ones you prepare yourself to fend off, and the ones that, you fear, will catch you completely unaware and defenseless. The Internet of Things (IoT) is nothing if not an endless proliferation of details. It's the vision of a world in which continuous Internet connectivity and addressability is embedded into a growing range of human artifacts, into the natural world, and even into our smartphones, appliances, and physical persons. In the IoT vision, every new "thing" - sensor, actuator, data source, data con...
Nov. 21, 2014 08:00 PM EST Reads: 1,458
Technology is enabling a new approach to collecting and using data. This approach, commonly referred to as the "Internet of Things" (IoT), enables businesses to use real-time data from all sorts of things including machines, devices and sensors to make better decisions, improve customer service, and lower the risk in the creation of new revenue opportunities. In his General Session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Dave Wagstaff, Vice President and Chief Architect at BSQUARE Corporation, discuss the real benefits to focus on, how to understand the requirements of a successful solution, the flow of ...
Nov. 21, 2014 08:00 PM EST Reads: 1,536
"BSQUARE is in the business of selling software solutions for smart connected devices. It's obvious that IoT has moved from being a technology to being a fundamental part of business, and in the last 18 months people have said let's figure out how to do it and let's put some focus on it, " explained Dave Wagstaff, VP & Chief Architect, at BSQUARE Corporation, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @ThingsExpo, held Nov 4-6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
Nov. 21, 2014 07:00 PM EST Reads: 1,387
Focused on this fast-growing market’s needs, Vitesse Semiconductor Corporation (Nasdaq: VTSS), a leading provider of IC solutions to advance "Ethernet Everywhere" in Carrier, Enterprise and Internet of Things (IoT) networks, introduced its IStaX™ software (VSC6815SDK), a robust protocol stack to simplify deployment and management of Industrial-IoT network applications such as Industrial Ethernet switching, surveillance, video distribution, LCD signage, intelligent sensors, and metering equipment. Leveraging technologies proven in the Carrier and Enterprise markets, IStaX is designed to work ac...
Nov. 20, 2014 09:15 PM EST Reads: 1,442
C-Labs LLC, a leading provider of remote and mobile access for the Internet of Things (IoT), announced the appointment of John Traynor to the position of chief operating officer. Previously a strategic advisor to the firm, Mr. Traynor will now oversee sales, marketing, finance, and operations. Mr. Traynor is based out of the C-Labs office in Redmond, Washington. He reports to Chris Muench, Chief Executive Officer. Mr. Traynor brings valuable business leadership and technology industry expertise to C-Labs. With over 30 years' experience in the high-tech sector, John Traynor has held numerous...
Nov. 20, 2014 06:00 PM EST Reads: 1,385
The 3rd International @ThingsExpo, co-located with the 16th International Cloud Expo - to be held June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY - announces that it is now accepting Keynote Proposals. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the most profound change in personal and enterprise IT since the creation of the Worldwide Web more than 20 years ago. All major researchers estimate there will be tens of billions devices - computers, smartphones, tablets, and sensors - connected to the Internet by 2020. This number will continue to grow at a rapid pace for the next several decades.
Nov. 20, 2014 01:00 PM EST Reads: 1,661