Welcome!

Cloud Security Authors: Jim Hansen, Elizabeth White, AppNeta Blog, Liz McMillan, Peter Silva

Related Topics: Cloud Security, Java IoT, Microservices Expo, Microsoft Cloud, Agile Computing

Cloud Security: Article

BIOS: Overview and Security

Basic Input/Output System (BIOS), also known as the system BIOS or ROM BIOS, is a standard defining a firmware interface

Computer security has become much harder to manage in recent years, and this is due to the fact that attackers continuously come up with new and more effective ways to attack our systems. As attackers become increasingly sophisticated we as security professionals must ensure that they do not have free rein over the systems that we are hired to protect. An attack vector that many people forget to consider is the boot process, which is almost completely controlled by the BIOS.

The BIOS is a privileged piece of software that is generally ignored by day-to-day users and thus they are usually unable to comprehend the importance of it in our computers. The Basic Input/Output System was first invented by Gary Kildall for use in his operating system CP/M and this became what we now know as the conventional BIOS system. The BIOS appeared in IBM-compatible PCs around 1975 and was used extensively in the CP/M operating system. This was later used in the MSDOS systems where it was known as DOS BIOS. These systems were only responsible for basic preboot hardware initializations before handing over control to the bootloader. This was fine 30 years ago, when software was simpler and attacks were not very predominant, thus the BIOS was not designed with security in mind. However, in today's world this is no longer the case. BIOS security lacks several features that make it vulnerable to external attack.

These are some notable attacks carried out against BIOS systems:

Chernobyl Attack (1998) - Also known as CIH or Spacefiller was the first major attack on BIOS systems. This virus installs on the windows memory and hooks into file access calls and infects all the currently executing programs. Then the virus tries to flash the BIOS rom by filling it with zeros. The other payload infects the Master Boot Record (MBR) by filling the first megabyte of the hard disk with zeros.

Mebromi (2012) - Is made up of a BIOS rootkit, MBR rootkit, Trojan downloader and PE infector. This Trojan deletes a specific registry value and checks for the BIOS manufacturer. If it's Award BIOS, it then infects the BIOS ROM and in turn infects the Master BOOT Record (MBR) and alters it allowing the execution of an infected program at each Operating System start-up.

We attempt to prevent such attacks by outlining several attack vectors and also suggest several mechanisms for the mitigation of attacks against the BIOS.

BIOS (Basic Input Output System)

Basic Input/Output System (BIOS), also known as the system BIOS or ROM BIOS, is a standard defining a firmware interface. BIOS software is built into the PC, and is the first software run by a PC when powered on. The fundamental purposes of the BIOS are to initialize and test the system hardware components, and to start the boot loader or an operating system from a secondary storage device. It also takes care of essential system functions such as power management and temperature regulation. It provides an abstraction layer for the underlying hardware by providing a consistent way for operating systems and application programs to interact with various input/output devices.

Changes in system hardware are abstracted by the BIOS from programs that use BIOS services instead of directly accessing the hardware. BIOS software is stored on a non-volatile ROM chip on the motherboard. Its unique design makes it compatible for particular models of computer, interfacing with various devices that make up the complementary chipset of the system. In modern PCs the BIOS contents are stored on an EEPROM chip.

An EEPROM chip or Electronically Erasable Programmable Read only memory is a type of non-volatile memory used by many electronic devices that requires small amounts of data to be stored for quick access. The contents of an EEPROM chip can be flashed, i.e., they can be overwritten with new data. This allows BIOS software to be easily upgraded to add new features and bug fixes. This feature is also one of the reasons that BIOS chipsets are vulnerable to attack.

Why BIOS Is in Blue
Most BIOS Screens will be blue; this is due to how the BIOS Manufacturers implement general BIOS color attributes. BIOS Color Attributes are 8-bit values where the lower 4 bits represent the character color and the higher 4 bits represent the background color. In BIOS, to print a white character in blue background the ‘BIOS colour attribute' would be set to a hexadecimal value of 0x1F.

Under certain conditions, setting the highest bit of the background color may cause the text to blink instead of making the background color intensified. In this context the highest bit of the background color should be kept low according to the BIOS color attribute distribution. As a result the Blue color which comprises value '1′ in hexadecimal is generally used for an uninterrupted BIOS display with intensified background with clear text.

Top BIOS Manufacturers
BIOS software is developed by several companies around the world and are usually deeply integrated with the system motherboard. Several of the most popular BIOS manufacturers are:

  • American Mega Trends
  • WinBond
  • Phoenix
  • AMI
  • IBM
  • Award

Role of BIOS
The BIOS has an essential role in the boot process of the computer also known as bootstrapping. It initializes system hardware, manages ACPI, and regulates CPU temperatures during the booting process. The major responsibilities of the BIOS are listed below:

  1. Establish Trust: The BIOS is responsible for verifying the integrity of all the hardware components in the system and also to authenticate them before use. This is done with the help of Core Root of Trust Measurement (CRTM), which basically checks if the hardware is valid and that its integrity has not been compromised.
  2. Test Hardware: The secondary functionality of the BIOS is to initialize and test the hardware present on the computer before it's used. Hardware such as the motherboard, chipset and memory are included in this test. This is generally carried out during POST (Power-On-Self-Test).
  3. Load additional Modules: Several devices present on the computer may require additional firmware for its proper functioning. The BIOS ensures that such additional firmware modules are loaded and executed. These may be stored in the BIOS chip itself or some secondary storage device.
  4. Boot Device Selection: After the above steps have been carried out, the BIOS starts to detect a valid boot device, e.g., USB drives, dard disk, etc. Once such a device has been found it executes the bootloader found on that device.
  5. Start Operating System: After this the actual bootstrapping process begins, the bootloader starts to execute and begins to load the OS kernel into memory. Once the kernel has been initialized the BIOS transfers full control to the Operating System.

BIOS Overview
System BIOS can be of two types namely:

  • Legacy BIOS
  • BIOS based upon the UEFI specification

Conventional BIOS (Legacy BIOS)
The Legacy BIOS or conventional BIOS is the tried and true BIOS type that has been around for years. It's generally a 16-bit program that is flashed onto a ROM chip and placed in the motherboard of the computer. This type of BIOS is very outdated and more vulnerable to attack, therefore it's advisable to use a newer and more stable specification.

The key component in conventional BIOS is a boot block. This part is logically separated from other parts of the BIOS and initially executed during the BIOS boot process. Then the boot block checks the integrity of the remaining firmware in BIOS and if any is corrupted recovers those. The boot block then initializes almost all the hardware associated with the system by using a Power-On-Self-Test (POST). During this procedure low-level hardware components like Memory, CPU, Chipset, etc., are initialized.

After this process, it then loads other option ROMS like Video Cards, SCSI Controller Cards, and Network Boot ROM that have their own BIOS software. This Option ROMS could inform the BIOS about its functionality, and then it could be called later on in the boot process depending on the order the user had selected. Then the BIOS checks the Master BOOT Record (MBR) in the order of the boot device's priority. If any storage device has a valid data that relates to MBR, it is selected. MBR then points to a corresponding boot loader of an operating system and thus in turns loads the operating system.

In a conventional Boot process, the System Management Mode (SMM) can be initiated by using SMI handlers and ACPI table's code. System Management Mode is a 32-bit mode that runs on high-privileged mode that can override almost all the hardware security mechanisms of the protected mode. In order to change to SMM mode, BIOS loads SMI handlers and initializes the ACPI tables and codes

Legacy BIOS Boot Process
When a computer is first powered on the BIOS is the first piece of software that is executed. The boot block then executes a POST (Power-On-Self-Test), thereby ensuring that all the hardware on the system is valid and accounted for. After the POST screen the user has the option to load the BIOS screen or to continue booting the current operating system instead. This is done by pressing a pre-designated key on the keyboard. This key may vary depending on the BIOS manufacturer. The BIOS then checks if any additional pieces of firmware have to be loaded for individual devices on the computer if so, then these modules are loaded and executed.

Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI)
UEFI (Unified Extensible Firmware Interface) is a specification that was first designed by Intel in the 1990s for its Itanium range of computer systems. It was originally called the EFI specification and was intended to be a better replacement for legacy BIOS systems. UEFI has several advantages over the conventional BIOS and is radically different from these older systems.

The UEFI specification defines a programmable software interface that lies between the device firmware and the operating system. It provides an almost OS-like interface to device firmware. Depending on the manufacturer it may lie on top of the BIOS but it's generally placed in the /EFI/ directory on some form of non-volatile memory. This may either be a NAND chip on the motherboard, a hard drive or even on a network share.

Differences Between UEFI and Legacy BIOS
There are several differences between conventional BIOS and UEFI systems and many of them add greater functionality and power to the computer. It also provides a more efficient and secure booting mechanism.

  1. Larger Address Space: Conventional BIOS were forced to work in a 16-bit mode with a maximum of 1mb addressable space. UEFI allows running in 32- and 64-bit mode allowing larger and more sophisticated programs to be run by the UEFI.
  2. Support for Larger File Systems: Traditional BIOS only supports the booting of disks that have MBR partitions. MBR partitioning schemes only support 4 partitions per disk and a maximum size of 2TB. UEFI supports the booting of GPT partitions (GUID partitions), which allow the booting of extremely large disks up to 8Zb.
  3. Improved Security Capabilities: The UEFI specification also improves on the security aspects of the older BIOS systems. It supports several security features such as secure boot. It also has provisions for providing basic cryptographic and public key infrastructure.
  4. CPU independent design: UEFI has employed a CPU independent design methodology, i.e., it can run on many different types of architectures. The code available is compiled differently for the required platform.
  5. Powerful Execution Environment: The UEFI specification provides a much more powerful execution environment for computers. It allows special features such as booting over a network, using the mouse, ACPI control and even browsing the web.
  6. Improved Performance: UEFI-compliant operating systems have been seen to have a significant performance boost not just during the boot process but also during running and powering off the system.

Windows 8 uses UEFI
UEFI, although supported by several operating system vendors for years, has not seen widespread adoption until the release of Windows 8. Windows 8 has tried to incorporate the best parts of UEFI into their latest operating system release particularly the secure boot feature.

Secure Boot
One of UEFI's most interesting feature is called Secure Boot; it allows you to boot only an authenticated OS kernel. Windows 8 relies heavily on this method to ensure that only authenticated firmware with a validated kernel image can be booted. This is quite different from older bootstrapping methodologies where any kind of bootloading code can be loaded and executed by the BIOS.

In secure a boot before the BIOS gives full control to the OS, bootloader makes sure that the firmware has been signed. This is done with the help of cryptographic signatures that are embedded on the firmware by the OEM. During the boot process the firmware will compare the platform key with the key present in the firmware of each device. This comparison is carried out between a database of authenticated valid keys; if the key is allowed then the firmware is allowed to execute, otherwise it is rejected.

This allows only authenticated devices to be loaded and ensures that malicious bootloader code is not loaded and executed. The safe boot mechanism in Windows 8 significantly reduces the chances of boot sector viruses and bootkits from launching and affecting the boot process of the machine.

UEFI Boot Process
The UEFI boot process is much like the boot process in conventional BIOS with a few minor changes. The process is divided into stages that take place sequentially and ends with the complete handover of control to the operating system. UEFI booting runs in a 32-bit or 64-bit protected mode on the CPU, not in a 16-bit mode, unlike legacy BIOS.

UEFI also starts with a small amount of code that begins the execution of the entire booting process. This phase is called the security phase (SEC) and it acts as the core root of trust. This is followed by the Pre-EFI initialization (PEI). This mode is similar to the Legacy bios pre-boot initialization phase in which device firmware is checked before boot. Then the driver execution environment is started where the actual initialization of extra device drivers takes place; devices such as network cards and graphic cards are checked in this phase.

The boot device is selected during the BDS (Boot Device Selection) phase. This then transfers control to the bootloader that is located in a GPT partition; the bootloader handles the loading of the OS kernel into memory.

Common BIOS Threats
BIOS is always written to a non-volatile storage device such as an EEPROM which allows the content of the ROM to be overwritten to introduce bug fixes and updates for the particular BIOS version. However this also has great potential for misuse such that malicious programs may also have the ability to modify the contents of the ROM disk if given enough access.

User Initiated Attack
This type of attack is carried out by an end user who uses an unauthenticated file to update the BIOS.. This can be carried out by an end user who doesn't have prior knowledge about the update file or a user with malicious intent.

Malware Attack
Malware attacks can be used to exploit vulnerability in bios. The attacker opens a backdoor to the system and cause a BIOS. crash using a vulnerable update version of BIOS.

Network Based or Organizational Attack
This is a large scale and crucial attack on an organizational basis. An attacker who gets access to a compromised update server can carry out an organizational wide attack and infect all systems by rolling out all authorized BIOS. versions to malicious ones.

How Do We Mitigate Common BIOS Threats
This section describes the security measures that an organization should implement in order to secure the BIOS. Since vulnerability in BIOS is crucial point to a system, it is important that every organization should follow predefined guidelines to secure the BIOS structure. The following method can be implemented in an enterprise structure to enhance BIOS security

In order to overcome the malicious attacks on BIOS, we can implement following methods:

  • Digital Authentication Method
  • Rollback Prevention Method
  • Physical Authentication Method

Automated Authentication Method
In this method, the authenticity of BIOS can be ensured through digital signatures. Here BIOS updates should only be installed if its authenticity is verified. Here digital signature embedded update images by BIOS manufactures will be the last level of authorization. This process can be automated by using a signature verification algorithm that ensures the validity of the digital signatures. This digital authentication method must be integrated by providing strong security features.

Rollback Prevention Method
Implement a mechanism that ensures the update images of BIOS so that it will not be rolled back to previous versions. This method ensures that if an update image is to be installed, it should be ensured that its version number is greater than the current one. This can ensure that the b BIOS version is not roll backed to a previous image that contains vulnerability.

In some cases if the current higher version has to be rolled back to a previous lesser version, i.e., if the current updated version of the BIOS contains vulnerability and there are no higher version updates to be installed and the earlier lesser version is stable than the current one. In this case the corresponding authority has to ensure that the lesser version does not contain any vulnerability.

Physical Authentication Method
This method provides the authenticity of updated images by ensuring the physical presence of the corresponding authority (system administrator). Here the authorities can verify the update images and update the BIOS, if the image is a valid one. This method can be used as a subsidiary to digital authentication method by providing as a recovery mechanism in situations like bios crash.

References

  1. www.wikipedia.org
  2. http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-147/NIST-SP800-147-April2011.pdf
  3. http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/drafts/800-155/draft-SP800-155_Dec2011.pdf
  4. http://blogs.msdn.com/b/b8/archive/2011/09/22/protecting-the-pre-os-environment-with-uefi.aspx

More Stories By Albert Fruz

Albert Fruz has 5 years of experience in the information security field, encompassing SIEM, malware analysis, ISO 27001 audits, rule-based auditing for firewall forensics and PCI dss audits.

Comments (0)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


@ThingsExpo Stories
The Internet of Things will challenge the status quo of how IT and development organizations operate. Or will it? Certainly the fog layer of IoT requires special insights about data ontology, security and transactional integrity. But the developmental challenges are the same: People, Process and Platform and how we integrate our thinking to solve complicated problems. In his session at 19th Cloud Expo, Craig Sproule, CEO of Metavine, demonstrated how to move beyond today's coding paradigm and sh...
DevOps is often described as a combination of technology and culture. Without both, DevOps isn't complete. However, applying the culture to outdated technology is a recipe for disaster; as response times grow and connections between teams are delayed by technology, the culture will die. A Nutanix Enterprise Cloud has many benefits that provide the needed base for a true DevOps paradigm.
Big Data, cloud, analytics, contextual information, wearable tech, sensors, mobility, and WebRTC: together, these advances have created a perfect storm of technologies that are disrupting and transforming classic communications models and ecosystems. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Erik Perotti, Senior Manager of New Ventures on Plantronics’ Innovation team, provided an overview of this technological shift, including associated business and consumer communications impacts, and opportunities it m...
WebRTC is about the data channel as much as about video and audio conferencing. However, basically all commercial WebRTC applications have been built with a focus on audio and video. The handling of “data” has been limited to text chat and file download – all other data sharing seems to end with screensharing. What is holding back a more intensive use of peer-to-peer data? In her session at @ThingsExpo, Dr Silvia Pfeiffer, WebRTC Applications Team Lead at National ICT Australia, looked at differ...
With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing IoT strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @ThingsExpo 2016 in New York. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is as "IoT-Ready" as it can be! Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, New York, is co-located with 20th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry p...
SYS-CON Events announced today that IoT Now has been named “Media Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 6–8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. IoT Now explores the evolving opportunities and challenges facing CSPs, and it passes on some lessons learned from those who have taken the first steps in next-gen IoT services.
The Internet of Things can drive efficiency for airlines and airports. In their session at @ThingsExpo, Shyam Varan Nath, Principal Architect with GE, and Sudip Majumder, senior director of development at Oracle, discussed the technical details of the connected airline baggage and related social media solutions. These IoT applications will enhance travelers' journey experience and drive efficiency for the airlines and the airports.
SYS-CON Events announced today that WineSOFT will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Based in Seoul and Irvine, WineSOFT is an innovative software house focusing on internet infrastructure solutions. The venture started as a bootstrap start-up in 2010 by focusing on making the internet faster and more powerful. WineSOFT’s knowledge is based on the expertise of TCP/IP, VPN, SSL, peer-to-peer, mob...
A strange thing is happening along the way to the Internet of Things, namely far too many devices to work with and manage. It has become clear that we'll need much higher efficiency user experiences that can allow us to more easily and scalably work with the thousands of devices that will soon be in each of our lives. Enter the conversational interface revolution, combining bots we can literally talk with, gesture to, and even direct with our thoughts, with embedded artificial intelligence, whic...
WebRTC sits at the intersection between VoIP and the Web. As such, it poses some interesting challenges for those developing services on top of it, but also for those who need to test and monitor these services. In his session at WebRTC Summit, Tsahi Levent-Levi, co-founder of testRTC, reviewed the various challenges posed by WebRTC when it comes to testing and monitoring and on ways to overcome them.
SYS-CON Events announced today that CA Technologies has been named “Platinum Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, and the 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place October 31-November 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. CA Technologies helps customers succeed in a future where every business – from apparel to energy – is being rewritten by software. From ...
In his keynote at 18th Cloud Expo, Andrew Keys, Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise, provided an overview of the evolution of the Internet and the Database and the future of their combination – the Blockchain. Andrew Keys is Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise. He comes to ConsenSys Enterprise with capital markets, technology and entrepreneurial experience. Previously, he worked for UBS investment bank in equities analysis. Later, he was responsible for the creation and distribution of life settle...
In his session at @ThingsExpo, Steve Wilkes, CTO and founder of Striim, will delve into four enterprise-scale, business-critical case studies where streaming analytics serves as the key to enabling real-time data integration and right-time insights in hybrid cloud, IoT, and fog computing environments. As part of this discussion, he will also present a demo based on its partnership with Fujitsu, highlighting their technologies in a healthcare IoT use-case. The demo showcases the tracking of patie...
The explosion of new web/cloud/IoT-based applications and the data they generate are transforming our world right before our eyes. In this rush to adopt these new technologies, organizations are often ignoring fundamental questions concerning who owns the data and failing to ask for permission to conduct invasive surveillance of their customers. Organizations that are not transparent about how their systems gather data telemetry without offering shared data ownership risk product rejection, regu...
The best way to leverage your Cloud Expo presence as a sponsor and exhibitor is to plan your news announcements around our events. The press covering Cloud Expo and @ThingsExpo will have access to these releases and will amplify your news announcements. More than two dozen Cloud companies either set deals at our shows or have announced their mergers and acquisitions at Cloud Expo. Product announcements during our show provide your company with the most reach through our targeted audiences.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Cloud Academy will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Cloud Academy is the industry’s most innovative, vendor-neutral cloud technology training platform. Cloud Academy provides continuous learning solutions for individuals and enterprise teams for Amazon Web Services, Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud Platform, and the most popular cloud computing technologies. Ge...
20th Cloud Expo, taking place June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. Cloud computing is now being embraced by a majority of enterprises of all sizes. Yesterday's debate about public vs. private has transformed into the reality of hybrid cloud: a recent survey shows that 74% of enterprises have a hybrid cloud strategy.
Bert Loomis was a visionary. This general session will highlight how Bert Loomis and people like him inspire us to build great things with small inventions. In their general session at 19th Cloud Expo, Harold Hannon, Architect at IBM Bluemix, and Michael O'Neill, Strategic Business Development at Nvidia, discussed the accelerating pace of AI development and how IBM Cloud and NVIDIA are partnering to bring AI capabilities to "every day," on-demand. They also reviewed two "free infrastructure" pr...
Have you ever noticed how some IT people seem to lead successful, rewarding, and satisfying lives and careers, while others struggle? IT author and speaker Don Crawley uncovered the five principles that successful IT people use to build satisfying lives and careers and he shares them in this fast-paced, thought-provoking webinar. You'll learn the importance of striking a balance with technical skills and people skills, challenge your pre-existing ideas about IT customer service, and gain new in...
The Internet of Things will challenge the status quo of how IT and development organizations operate. Or will it? Certainly the fog layer of IoT requires special insights about data ontology, security and transactional integrity. But the developmental challenges are the same: People, Process and Platform. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Craig Sproule, CEO of Metavine, demonstrated how to move beyond today's coding paradigm and shared the must-have mindsets for removing complexity from the develop...