Welcome!

Cloud Security Authors: Leon Adato, Elizabeth White, Tim Hinds, Dan Sarel, Jose Diaz

Related Topics: @CloudExpo, Java IoT, Linux Containers, Containers Expo Blog, Cloud Security, SDN Journal

@CloudExpo: Article

Why Intelligent VM Routing Is Critical to Your Private Cloud’s Success

Hosting decisions are far too important to be left to simplistic, best-efforts approaches

Virtualized and private cloud infrastructures are all about sharing resources - compute, storage and network. Optimizing these environments comes down to the ability to properly balance capacity supply and application demand. In practical terms, this means allocating the right amount of resources and putting workloads in the right places. These decisions are critical to ensuring performance, compliance and cost control.

Yet most organizations are using antiquated methods such as home-grown spreadsheets and best guesses to determine which infrastructure to host workloads on and how much capacity to allocate. Not only do these approaches hinder operational agility, but as hosting decisions become more and more complex, they are downright dangerous. The typical strategy employed to stave off risk is to over-provision infrastructure, and the thinking behind this is that having an excess of capacity on hand will ensure that enough resource is available to avoid any performance problems. This is not only expensive, but it actually doesn't prevent key operational issues and many of the performance and compliance issues that are caused by incorrectly combining workloads.

In essence, this management challenge is the same one faced by hotel operators. Hoteliers need to constantly align guest demands with hotel resources and amenities. A hotel could not operate without a reservation system to manage resource availability and match that with guest needs, and yet this is exactly how companies manage their virtual and internal cloud environments. Imagine if a hotel didn't have the operational control provided by their reservation system, and was constantly forced to build more rooms than necessary in order to meet "potential" guest demands, rather than basing their decision on an actual profile of historical and predicted demand. Or if they put clients in rooms without enough beds or required amenities. This should start sounding familiar to anyone who has managed a production virtual environment.

Hotels have had the luxury of a long history to refine their operations, and by using reservations systems to properly place guests and manage current and future bookings, they have gained a complete picture of available resources at any point in time. In doing so, they have optimized their ability to plan for and leverage available capacity, achieving the right balance between supply and demand.

Why Workload Routing and Reservations are Important
By applying the same principles used to manage a hotel's available capacity to their own operations, IT organizations can significantly reduce risk and cost while ensuring service levels in virtual and cloud infrastructures. There are five reasons why the process of workload routing and capacity reservation must become a core, automated component of IT planning and management:

1. Complexity of the Hosting Decision
Hosting decisions are all about optimally aligning supply with demand. However, this is very complex in modern infrastructures, where capabilities can vary widely, and the requirements of the workloads may have a significant impact on what can go where. To make the optimal decision, there are three important questions that must be asked:

  • Do the infrastructure capabilities satisfy the workload requirements? This is commonly referred to as "fit for purpose," and is required to determine whether the hosting environment is suitable for the kind of workload being hosted. This question has not always been top of mind in the past, as the typical process to deploy new applications has been to procure new infrastructure with very detailed specifications. But the increasing use of shared environments is changing this, and understanding the specifications of the currently running hosting environments is critical. Unfortunately, early virtual environments tended to be one-size-fits-all, and early internal clouds tended to focus on dev/test workloads, so fit for purpose decisions rarely extended beyond ensuring the environment has the right CPU architecture.
  • Will the workloads fit? While the fit for purpose analysis is concerned with whether a target environment has the right kind of capacity, this aspect of making hosting decisions is concerned with whether there is sufficient free capacity to host the workloads. This is a more traditional capacity problem, but with a twist, as virtual and cloud environments are by nature shared environments, and the capacity equation is multi-dimensional. Resources such as CPU, memory, disk, I/O, network I/O, storage capacity, etc., must be considered, as well as looking at the levels and patterns of activity to ensure that the new workloads are "dovetailing" with the existing ones. Furthermore, any analysis of capacity must also ensure that the workload will fit at the point in time it will be deployed and it must continue to fit beyond that time.
  • What is the relative cost? While fit and suitability are critical to where to host a workload, in a tiebreaker the main issue becomes relative cost. While many organizations are still not sophisticated enough to have an accurate chargeback model in place, a more precise way to determine cost may be to consider the relative cost of hosting a workload as a function of policy and placement.

2. Capacity Supply and Application Demand are Dynamic
Nothing stands still in virtualized IT environments, and any decisions must be made in the context of ever-changing technologies, hardware specs, service catalogs, application requirements and workloads. This is becoming even more prevalent in the age of the software-defined data center.

Because of this, capacity must be viewed as a pipeline, with inbound demands, inbound supply side capacity, outbound demands and decommissioned capacity all being part of the natural flow of activity. Handling this flow is a key to achieving agility, which is a goal in the current breed of virtual and cloud hosting infrastructure. The ability to efficiently react to changing needs is critical, and the lack of agility in legacy environments is really a reflection of the fact that previous approaches did not operate as a pipeline. If it currently takes two to three months to get capacity, then it is a clear indication that there is no pipeline in place.

3. Meeting Your Customers Expectations
Application owners today have expectations that capacity will be available when required, so it's necessary for IT to have a way to hold capacity for planned workload placements to be available on the date of deployment (like advance booking a hotel room).

Sometimes the concept of a capacity reservation is equated with the draw-down on a pool of resources or a quota that has been assigned to a consumer or internal group. This is dangerous, as it simply ensures that a specific amount of resources will not be exceeded, and does not guarantee that actual resources will be available. This is analogous to getting a coupon from a store that says "limit 10 per customer" - it in no way guarantees that there will be any product left on the shelf. Organizations should beware of these types of reservations, as they can give a false sense of security.

Capacity reservations are extremely useful to those managing the infrastructure capacity. They provide an accurate model of the pipeline of demand, which allows for much more efficient, accurate and timely purchasing decisions. Simply put, less idle capacity needs to be left on the floor. It also allows infrastructure to be managed as a portfolio, and if a certain mix of resources is needed to satisfy the overall supply and demand balance (such as buying servers with more memory), then procurement can factor this in.

4. Even Self-Service Needs Reservations
Self-service can create a highly volatile demand pipeline. But a bigger issue with self-service models is the way organizations perceive them. Many early cloud implementations focus on dev/test users or more grid-type workloads, and the entire approach to delivering capacity takes on a last-minute, unplanned flavor. But these are not the only kinds of workloads - or even the most common - and for a cloud to become a true "next-generation" hosting platform it must also support enterprise applications and proper release planning processes.

The heart of the issue is a tendency for organizations to equate self-service with instant provisioning. Although instant provisioning is useful for dev/test, grid and other horizontal scaling scenarios, it is not the only approach. For example, an online hotel reservation site provides self-service access to hotel rooms, but these rooms are not often being booked for that night. For business trips, conferences and even vacations, you book ahead. The same process must be put into place for hosting workloads.

Rather than narrowly defining self-service as the immediate provisioning of capacity, it is better to focus on the intelligent provisioning of capacity, which may or may not be immediate. For enterprise workloads with proper planning cycles and typical lead times, reservations are far more important than instant provisioning. And deciding where the application should be hosted in the first place is a solution critical decision that is often overlooked. Unless an organization has only one hosting environment, the importance (and difficulty) of this should not be underestimated.

5. Demand Is Global
There is a huge benefit to thinking big when it comes to making hosting decisions. The long-term trend will undoubtedly be to start thinking beyond the four walls of an organization and make broader hosting decisions that include external cloud providers, outsourcing models and other potential avenues of efficiency. But the use of external capacity is still a distant roadmap item in many IT organizations, and the current focus tends to be on making the best use of existing capacity and purchasing dollars.

Operating in scale also allows certain assumptions to be challenged, such as the requirement for an application to be hosted at a specific geographical location. Geographical constraints should be fully understood and properly identified, and not simply assumed based on past activity or server-hugging paranoia. Some workloads do have specific jurisdictional constraints, compliance requirements or latency sensitivities, but many have a significant amount of leeway in this regard, and to constrain them unnecessarily ties up expensive data center resources.

Unfortunately, the manual processes and spreadsheet-based approaches in use in many organizations are simply not capable of operating at the necessary scale, and cannot properly model the true requirements and constraints of a workload. This not only means that decisions are made in an overly narrow context, but that the decisions that are made are likely wrong.

Moving Past Your "Gut"
Hosting decisions are far too important to be left to simplistic, best-efforts approaches. Where a workload is placed and how resources are assigned to it is likely the most important factor in operational efficiency and safety, and is even more critical as organizations consider cloud hosting models. These decisions must be driven by the true requirements of the applications, the capabilities of the infrastructure, the policies in force and the pipeline of activity. They should be made in the context of the global picture, where all supply and demand can be considered and all hosting assumptions challenged. And they should be made in software, not brains, so they are repeatable, accurate and can drive automation.

More Stories By Andrew Hillier

Andrew Hillier is CTO and co-founder of CiRBA, Inc., a data center intelligence analytics software provider that determines optimal workload placements and resource allocations required to safely maximize the efficiency of Cloud, virtual and physical infrastructure. Reach Andrew at [email protected]

Comments (0)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


@ThingsExpo Stories
So, you bought into the current machine learning craze and went on to collect millions/billions of records from this promising new data source. Now, what do you do with them? Too often, the abundance of data quickly turns into an abundance of problems. How do you extract that "magic essence" from your data without falling into the common pitfalls? In her session at @ThingsExpo, Natalia Ponomareva, Software Engineer at Google, will provide tips on how to be successful in large scale machine lear...
Digital payments using wearable devices such as smart watches, fitness trackers, and payment wristbands are an increasing area of focus for industry participants, and consumer acceptance from early trials and deployments has encouraged some of the biggest names in technology and banking to continue their push to drive growth in this nascent market. Wearable payment systems may utilize near field communication (NFC), radio frequency identification (RFID), or quick response (QR) codes and barcodes...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Stratoscale, the software company developing the next generation data center operating system, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Stratoscale is revolutionizing the data center with a zero-to-cloud-in-minutes solution. With Stratoscale’s hardware-agnostic, Software Defined Data Center (SDDC) solution to store everything, run anything and scale everywhere...
Angular 2 is a complete re-write of the popular framework AngularJS. Programming in Angular 2 is greatly simplified – now it's a component-based well-performing framework. This immersive one-day workshop at 18th Cloud Expo, led by Yakov Fain, a Java Champion and a co-founder of the IT consultancy Farata Systems and the product company SuranceBay, will provide you with everything you wanted to know about Angular 2.
You think you know what’s in your data. But do you? Most organizations are now aware of the business intelligence represented by their data. Data science stands to take this to a level you never thought of – literally. The techniques of data science, when used with the capabilities of Big Data technologies, can make connections you had not yet imagined, helping you discover new insights and ask new questions of your data. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Sarbjit Sarkaria, data science team lead ...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Men & Mice, the leading global provider of DNS, DHCP and IP address management overlay solutions, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. The Men & Mice Suite overlay solution is already known for its powerful application in heterogeneous operating environments, enabling enterprises to scale without fuss. Building on a solid range of diverse platform support,...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Peak 10, Inc., a national IT infrastructure and cloud services provider, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Peak 10 provides reliable, tailored data center and network services, cloud and managed services. Its solutions are designed to scale and adapt to customers’ changing business needs, enabling them to lower costs, improve performance and focus inter...
You deployed your app with the Bluemix PaaS and it's gaining some serious traction, so it's time to make some tweaks. Did you design your application in a way that it can scale in the cloud? Were you even thinking about the cloud when you built the app? If not, chances are your app is going to break. Check out this webcast to learn various techniques for designing applications that will scale successfully in Bluemix, for the confidence you need to take your apps to the next level and beyond.
In his session at @ThingsExpo, Chris Klein, CEO and Co-founder of Rachio, will discuss next generation communities that are using IoT to create more sustainable, intelligent communities. One example is Sterling Ranch, a 10,000 home development that – with the help of Siemens – will integrate IoT technology into the community to provide residents with energy and water savings as well as intelligent security. Everything from stop lights to sprinkler systems to building infrastructures will run ef...
Whether your IoT service is connecting cars, homes, appliances, wearable, cameras or other devices, one question hangs in the balance – how do you actually make money from this service? The ability to turn your IoT service into profit requires the ability to create a monetization strategy that is flexible, scalable and working for you in real-time. It must be a transparent, smoothly implemented strategy that all stakeholders – from customers to the board – will be able to understand and comprehe...
Increasing IoT connectivity is forcing enterprises to find elegant solutions to organize and visualize all incoming data from these connected devices with re-configurable dashboard widgets to effectively allow rapid decision-making for everything from immediate actions in tactical situations to strategic analysis and reporting. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Shikhir Singh, Senior Developer Relations Manager at Sencha, will discuss how to create HTML5 dashboards that interact with IoT devic...
Artificial Intelligence has the potential to massively disrupt IoT. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, AJ Abdallat, CEO of Beyond AI, will discuss what the five main drivers are in Artificial Intelligence that could shape the future of the Internet of Things. AJ Abdallat is CEO of Beyond AI. He has over 20 years of management experience in the fields of artificial intelligence, sensors, instruments, devices and software for telecommunications, life sciences, environmental monitoring, process...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Ericsson has been named “Gold Sponsor” of SYS-CON's @ThingsExpo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York, New York. Ericsson is a world leader in the rapidly changing environment of communications technology – providing equipment, software and services to enable transformation through mobility. Some 40 percent of global mobile traffic runs through networks we have supplied. More than 1 billion subscribers around the world re...
There is an ever-growing explosion of new devices that are connected to the Internet using “cloud” solutions. This rapid growth is creating a massive new demand for efficient access to data. And it’s not just about connecting to that data anymore. This new demand is bringing new issues and challenges and it is important for companies to scale for the coming growth. And with that scaling comes the need for greater security, gathering and data analysis, storage, connectivity and, of course, the...
SYS-CON Events announced today that DatacenterDynamics has been named “Media Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7–9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. DatacenterDynamics is a brand of DCD Group, a global B2B media and publishing company that develops products to help senior professionals in the world's most ICT dependent organizations make risk-based infrastructure and capacity decisions.
Machine Learning helps make complex systems more efficient. By applying advanced Machine Learning techniques such as Cognitive Fingerprinting, wind project operators can utilize these tools to learn from collected data, detect regular patterns, and optimize their own operations. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Stuart Gillen, Director of Business Development at SparkCognition, will discuss how research has demonstrated the value of Machine Learning in delivering next generation analytics to im...
This is not a small hotel event. It is also not a big vendor party where politicians and entertainers are more important than real content. This is Cloud Expo, the world's longest-running conference and exhibition focused on Cloud Computing and all that it entails. If you want serious presentations and valuable insight about Cloud Computing for three straight days, then register now for Cloud Expo.
IoT device adoption is growing at staggering rates, and with it comes opportunity for developers to meet consumer demand for an ever more connected world. Wireless communication is the key part of the encompassing components of any IoT device. Wireless connectivity enhances the device utility at the expense of ease of use and deployment challenges. Since connectivity is fundamental for IoT device development, engineers must understand how to overcome the hurdles inherent in incorporating multipl...
The increasing popularity of the Internet of Things necessitates that our physical and cognitive relationship with wearable technology will change rapidly in the near future. This advent means logging has become a thing of the past. Before, it was on us to track our own data, but now that data is automatically available. What does this mean for mHealth and the "connected" body? In her session at @ThingsExpo, Lisa Calkins, CEO and co-founder of Amadeus Consulting, will discuss the impact of wea...
We’ve worked with dozens of early adopters across numerous industries and will debunk common misperceptions, which starts with understanding that many of the connected products we’ll use over the next 5 years are already products, they’re just not yet connected. With an IoT product, time-in-market provides much more essential feedback than ever before. Innovation comes from what you do with the data that the connected product provides in order to enhance the customer experience and optimize busi...