Welcome!

Cloud Security Authors: Yeshim Deniz, XebiaLabs Blog, Derek Weeks, Liz McMillan, Harry Trott

Related Topics: Cloud Security, Java IoT, Microservices Expo, Linux Containers

Cloud Security: Article

Malware Analysis | Part 1

How to use a number of tools to analyze a memory image file from an infected windows machine

Having your network environment protected with the latest virus protection, control what software is installed and allowed to run, restrict ingress and egress network access, protect web browsing, limit user account access, update security patches, change management practices, etc. All these efforts are critical to follow in the corporate environment but all will fall short if you don't have the proper monitoring in place to detect badness on your network and to respond quickly and effectively when it happens. When your network has the proper monitoring in place and knowledgeable engineers to monitor for outbreaks you will begin to have better visibility of how network traffic flows in your environment. When you understand how traffic flows on your network you can respond better when badness happens.

I will demonstrate how to use a number of tools to analyze a memory image file from an infected windows machine. I will demonstrate how to acquire a memory image from a windows machine that is currently running will malware infection and the process of memory analysis using various tools.

To gather an image file from an infected machine can be performed a number of ways. If you have an enterprise version of EnCase you can acquire evidence very fast and from various devices such as laptop, desktop, and mobile devices like smartphones and tablets. For most of us our IT budget is limited and this option is not viable. Using something like F-Response TACTICAL is a solution and requires only two usb sticks. One is labeled TACTICAL Subject and the other is TACTICAL Examiner, you put the Examiner one in the box you are researching malware. Next you put the Subject on the box that is infected with Malware. Below I demonstrate how this is performed with the subject on a windows box (infected with malware) and the examiner installed on a Linux platform (SANS SIFT workstation) to acquire the image.

Once the usb stick is loaded on the windows box install the program so it can listen on its external interface (see Figure #1).

Figure #1

Running the subject program on the infected windows box, remember to enable physical memory

On your SIFT workstation insert the usb stick examiner, make sure it shows up as loaded on your workstation (See Figure #2). Next execute the program f-response-tacex-lin.exe using the following syntax (see Figure #3). Notice that it connects to the following:

  • · iqn.2008-02.com.f-response.cr0wn-d00e37654:disk-0
  • · iqn.2008-02.com.f-response.cr0wn-d00e37654:disk-1
  • · iqn.2008-02.com.f-response.cr0wn-d00e37654:vol-c
  • · iqn.2008-02.com.f-response.cr0wn-d00e37654:vol-e
  • · iqn.2008-02.com.f-response.cr0wn-d00e37654:pmem

Figure #2

Make sure the examiner usb is loaded on the SIFT workstation

Figure #3

Perform the connection between the SIFT workstation and the infected windows box

Next we are going to login to iqn.2008-02.com.f-response.cr0wn-d00e37654:disk-0 with the following command (see Figure #4):

# iscsiadm -m node -targetname=iqn.2008-02.com.f-response.cr0wn-d00e37654:disk-0 --login

Figure #4

Successfully connected to windows box at 192.168.1.129

The iscsiadm command is an open-iscsi administration utility that allows discovery and login to iSCSI targets, as well as access and management of the open-iscsi database. The -m specify the mode which is node it can also be defined as: discoverydb, fw, host iface or session. With the mode selected as node we use the -targetname= and specify the location of the target drive.

After successfully connecting to the remote machine run fdisk -l and see our new device located at /dev/sdd1 (see Figure #5)

Figure #5

Results after running fdisk -l

Next we will mount the partition /dev/sdd1 which is located in the screenshot above (Figure #5) using the following mount command.

# mount -o ro,show_sys_files,streams_interface=windows /dev/sdd1 /mnt/windows_mount

Using the mount command with the -o option: ro - mount the file system read-only, show_sys_files - show all system files as normal files, streams_interface=windows - this option controls how named data streams in WIMfiles are made available with "windows" the named data stream. This will mount the memory from our windows box to /mnt/windows_mount. After changing into that directory and list files you will see the following (see Figure #6)

Figure #6

List of files after mounting the memory from our target windows box following by login to the pmem location

Now we need to login to the process memory of the target which is the pmem location (see Figure #3 ‘F-Response Target = iqn.2008-02.com.f-response.cr0wn-d00e37654:pmem'). We will use the iscsiadm open-iscsi administration utility to perform this task with the following command:

# iscsiadm -m node -targetname=iqn.2008-02.com.f-response.cr0wn-d00e37654:pmem -login

Again we are using the isciadm utility specifying the node with targetname of where the pmem file is located. Now we will run fdisk -l and see the partition tables (see Figure #7).

Figure #7

Results after running fdisk -l notice the HPFS/NTFS system at /dev/sdd1. This is the result after login to the pmem location.

Now we can image the remote systems memory using dc3dd which was developed by Jesse Komblum at the DoD Cyber Crime Center. Dc3dd is similar to dd but allows us to use for forensic work, allowing you to take hashes and split an image all from one command. Open up a terminal and type the following:

# dc3dd if=/dev/sde of=/cases/remote-system-memory8.img progress=on hash=md5 hashlog=/cases/remote-system-memory8.md5

Here is a breakdown of the command:

  • · if=DEVICE or FILE - Read input from a device or a file, in this case /dev/sde (see Figure #7 ‘Disk /dev/sde: 2466 MB, 2466250752 bytes
  • · of=FILE or DEVICE - Write output to a file or device, in this case /cases/remote-system-memory8.img
  • · progress=on - Will show progress on screen
  • · hash=ALGORITHM - Compute an ALGORITHM hash of the input and also of any outputs specified using hof=, hofs=, phod=, or fhod=, where ALGORITHM is one of md5, sha1, sha256, or sha512
  • · hashlog=FILE - Log total hashes and piecewise hashes to FILE.

This will do a forensic copy of the windows memory file to your computer; you can see a screenshot of the progress (see Figure #8).

Figure #8

Performing a forensic copy of the windows memory file using dc3dd

Now that we have an image file of the windows memory we can analysis for existence of malware. There are a couple of tools that you can use one is for the windows platform called Redline by Mandiant which I will be going over in greater detail later. The second tool which is open source is Volatility implemented in Python for the extraction of digital artifacts from volatile memory (RAM) samples. I will be discussing both in very limited bases in this month's article.

If the memory image was acquired from an unknown system and although this was a closed lab environment and I know what system it came from you will need to identify the operation system using Volatility (see Figure #9).

Figure #9

Using Volatility to identify what operation system the dump came from

We use the imageinfo plug-in for Volatility to find out the operation system the memory dump belongs to. Here we see in the suggested profile portion of the output it is a WinXP SP2x86 system, you will need this information to perform more work using Volatility on this memory image file.

To look at the running processes we use the following command:

$ vol.py -profile=WinXPSP2x86 pslist -f remote-system-memory8.img

You can also use the psscan plugin to scan the memory image for EPROCESS blocks with the following command:

$ vol.py -profile=WinXPSP2x86 psscan -f remote-system-memory8.img

Use the psscan to enumerate processes using pool tag scanning that can find processes that previously terminated (inactive) and processes that have been hidden or unlinked by a rootkit (see Figure #10).

Figure #10

Volatility with the psscan invoked

Now for a quick view of Mandiant Redline application we copy the windows memory images off our SANS Investigate Forensic Toolkit (SIFT) and on to a separate Windows workstation where you have Mandiant Redline installed. Next you will analysis your memory image with Redline (see Figure #11).

Figure #11

Loading memory image to be analyzed by Mandiant Redline followed by choosing ‘I am Reviewing a Full Live Response or Memory Image'.

Mandiant Redline is a free tool that provides host investigative capabilities to users and finds signs of malicious activity through memory and file analysis to develop a threat assessment profile. After I infected the test windows box with a known malware variant and allowed the system to react the machine wanted to restart at that moment I acquired a memory image and loaded it into Redline. I then allowed the machine to reboot and took another memory image. The total processes that are running on the system are in Figures #12 (left before reboot & right after reboot).

Figure #12

Total numbers of processes running after installing of malware then list of processes running after reboot

After comparing the two different lists we see that after reboot we have new processes running (jh MRI Score 61 PID - 38533 and svchost.exe MRI Score 61 PID - 1560). MRI Score is the Redline analyzes of each process and memory section to calculate a Malware Risk Index (MRI) score for each process.

Next month I will dive deeper into further information you can learn from analysis of memory images using both Mandiant Redline and Volatility.

More Stories By David Dodd

David J. Dodd is currently in the United States and holds a current 'Top Secret' DoD Clearance and is available for consulting on various Information Assurance projects. A former U.S. Marine with Avionics background in Electronic Countermeasures Systems. David has given talks at the San Diego Regional Security Conference and SDISSA, is a member of InfraGard, and contributes to Secure our eCity http://securingourecity.org. He works for Xerox as Information Security Officer City of San Diego & pbnetworks Inc. http://pbnetworks.net a Service Disabled Veteran Owned Small Business (SDVOSB) located in San Diego, CA and can be contacted by emailing: dave at pbnetworks.net.

@ThingsExpo Stories
Most technology leaders, contemporary and from the hardware era, are reshaping their businesses to do software in the hope of capturing value in IoT. Although IoT is relatively new in the market, it has already gone through many promotional terms such as IoE, IoX, SDX, Edge/Fog, Mist Compute, etc. Ultimately, irrespective of the name, it is about deriving value from independent software assets participating in an ecosystem as one comprehensive solution.
New competitors, disruptive technologies, and growing expectations are pushing every business to both adopt and deliver new digital services. This ‘Digital Transformation’ demands rapid delivery and continuous iteration of new competitive services via multiple channels, which in turn demands new service delivery techniques – including DevOps. In this power panel at @DevOpsSummit 20th Cloud Expo, moderated by DevOps Conference Co-Chair Andi Mann, panelists will examine how DevOps helps to meet th...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Hitachi, the leading provider the Internet of Things and Digital Transformation, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Hitachi Data Systems, a wholly owned subsidiary of Hitachi, Ltd., offers an integrated portfolio of services and solutions that enable digital transformation through enhanced data management, governance, mobility and analytics. We help globa...
SYS-CON Events announced today that T-Mobile will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. As America's Un-carrier, T-Mobile US, Inc., is redefining the way consumers and businesses buy wireless services through leading product and service innovation. The Company's advanced nationwide 4G LTE network delivers outstanding wireless experiences to 67.4 million customers who are unwilling to compromise on ...
The age of Digital Disruption is evolving into the next era – Digital Cohesion, an age in which applications securely self-assemble and deliver predictive services that continuously adapt to user behavior. Information from devices, sensors and applications around us will drive services seamlessly across mobile and fixed devices/infrastructure. This evolution is happening now in software defined services and secure networking. Four key drivers – Performance, Economics, Interoperability and Trust ...
Five years ago development was seen as a dead-end career, now it’s anything but – with an explosion in mobile and IoT initiatives increasing the demand for skilled engineers. But apart from having a ready supply of great coders, what constitutes true ‘DevOps Royalty’? It’ll be the ability to craft resilient architectures, supportability, security everywhere across the software lifecycle. In his keynote at @DevOpsSummit at 20th Cloud Expo, Jeffrey Scheaffer, GM and SVP, Continuous Delivery Busine...
DevOps is often described as a combination of technology and culture. Without both, DevOps isn't complete. However, applying the culture to outdated technology is a recipe for disaster; as response times grow and connections between teams are delayed by technology, the culture will die. A Nutanix Enterprise Cloud has many benefits that provide the needed base for a true DevOps paradigm.
SYS-CON Events announced today that SoftLayer, an IBM Company, has been named “Gold Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York, New York. SoftLayer, an IBM Company, provides cloud infrastructure as a service from a growing number of data centers and network points of presence around the world. SoftLayer’s customers range from Web startups to global enterprises.
The 20th International Cloud Expo has announced that its Call for Papers is open. Cloud Expo, to be held June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, brings together Cloud Computing, Big Data, Internet of Things, DevOps, Containers, Microservices and WebRTC to one location. With cloud computing driving a higher percentage of enterprise IT budgets every year, it becomes increasingly important to plant your flag in this fast-expanding business opportunity. Submit your speaking proposal ...
In his keynote at @ThingsExpo, Chris Matthieu, Director of IoT Engineering at Citrix and co-founder and CTO of Octoblu, focused on building an IoT platform and company. He provided a behind-the-scenes look at Octoblu’s platform, business, and pivots along the way (including the Citrix acquisition of Octoblu).
With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing Cloud strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @CloudExpo | @ThingsExpo, June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY and October 31 - November 2, 2017, Santa Clara Convention Center, CA. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is on the right path to Digital Transformation.
With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing IoT strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @ThingsExpo 2016 in New York. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is as "IoT-Ready" as it can be! Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, New York, is co-located with 20th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry p...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Hitachi, the leading provider the Internet of Things and Digital Transformation, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Hitachi Data Systems, a wholly owned subsidiary of Hitachi, Ltd., offers an integrated portfolio of services and solutions that enable digital transformation through enhanced data management, governance, mobility and analytics. We help globa...
20th Cloud Expo, taking place June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. Cloud computing is now being embraced by a majority of enterprises of all sizes. Yesterday's debate about public vs. private has transformed into the reality of hybrid cloud: a recent survey shows that 74% of enterprises have a hybrid cloud strategy.
Web Real-Time Communication APIs have quickly revolutionized what browsers are capable of. In addition to video and audio streams, we can now bi-directionally send arbitrary data over WebRTC's PeerConnection Data Channels. With the advent of Progressive Web Apps and new hardware APIs such as WebBluetooh and WebUSB, we can finally enable users to stitch together the Internet of Things directly from their browsers while communicating privately and securely in a decentralized way.
With billions of sensors deployed worldwide, the amount of machine-generated data will soon exceed what our networks can handle. But consumers and businesses will expect seamless experiences and real-time responsiveness. What does this mean for IoT devices and the infrastructure that supports them? More of the data will need to be handled at - or closer to - the devices themselves.
SYS-CON Events announced today that CollabNet, a global leader in enterprise software development, release automation and DevOps solutions, will be a Bronze Sponsor of SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, taking place from June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. CollabNet offers a broad range of solutions with the mission of helping modern organizations deliver quality software at speed. The company’s latest innovation, the DevOps Lifecycle Manager (DLM), supports Value S...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Super Micro Computer, Inc., a global leader in compute, storage and networking technologies, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Supermicro (NASDAQ: SMCI), the leading innovator in high-performance, high-efficiency server technology, is a premier provider of advanced server Building Block Solutions® for Data Center, Cloud Computing, Enterprise IT, Hadoop/...
Amazon has gradually rolled out parts of its IoT offerings in the last year, but these are just the tip of the iceberg. In addition to optimizing their back-end AWS offerings, Amazon is laying the ground work to be a major force in IoT – especially in the connected home and office. Amazon is extending its reach by building on its dominant Cloud IoT platform, its Dash Button strategy, recently announced Replenishment Services, the Echo/Alexa voice recognition control platform, the 6-7 strategic...
@GonzalezCarmen has been ranked the Number One Influencer and @ThingsExpo has been named the Number One Brand in the “M2M 2016: Top 100 Influencers and Brands” by Analytic. Onalytica analyzed tweets over the last 6 months mentioning the keywords M2M OR “Machine to Machine.” They then identified the top 100 most influential brands and individuals leading the discussion on Twitter.