Welcome!

Security Authors: Anne Buff, John Grady, Gilad Parann-Nissany, Paige Leidig, David H Deans

Related Topics: ColdFusion, Security

ColdFusion: Article

ColdFusion Security Best Practices

Knowing the security risks are there is half the battle

The Internet has become a scary and hostile place; can your Web applications survive?

Although a lot of media attention has recently been paid to information security, surprisingly little has been published regarding ColdFusion security. Does this then mean that ColdFusion applications are immune to security risks? The answer, unfortunately, is no. Attacks may actually be easier to execute and much more prevalent than programmers would like to believe. Knowing the security risks are there is half the battle.

This article is not meant to be a silver bullet or a complete reference, as that could easily fill many volumes. I hope instead to give a thorough overview of ColdFusion security coding practices - thorough enough that you will know what types of things to take into consideration as you write your applications. Making your applications secure is probably a lot easier than you think.

I will cover some of the more common security problems, such as cross-site scripting, SQL injection, and man-in-the-middle attacks, along with some general ColdFusion security considerations. I will also touch on buffer overflow attacks and authentication and login security.

Cross-Site Scripting (XSS)
Perhaps the easiest type of attack to enact (and the easiest to prevent) against a Web application is that of a cross-site scripting (XSS) attack. Saving a form to the local machine the attacker is working from is the first step in this sort of attack. Once the file is there, the attacker then has the ability to change form field values that would not normally be accessible to a user simply filling out a form, such as radio buttons, select boxes, and hidden form fields, to name a few. The first thing an attacker would have to do is to change the post action of the form to include the full URL of your post page.

Preventing this kind of attack is as easy as checking for a referrer - or even just making sure that the post action is coming from your site. One way to accomplish this is to include code such as the following at the top of your posting pages:


 <!--- XSS Protection --->
 <cfif NOT len(cgi.http_referer) 
    OR NOT findnocase(cgi.http_host,cgi.http_referer)>
       <h3>Post action aborted!</h3>
       <br />
       <p>Post from foreign host detected</p>
       <cfabort>
 </cfif>
This code checks first to be sure that there is a referrer with the "NOT len(cgi.http_referer)". The reasoning behind this is that if the first page they are going to is the posting page, then something is obviously wrong. Also, this is a very real indicator that yes, this is an XSS attack. There can, however, be some false positives with this code because of older browser usage, but this is the fault of the browser and not the code. So at this point we know there is a referrer but not whether it is coming from our server, which is why we include the second part of the cfif statement "NOT findnocase(cgi.http_host,cgi.http_referer)". This section of the statement checks to be sure that this is indeed a page on your site going to post on your site. With this we know that it is most likely a legitimate transaction and will allow the user to post the form.

Note: Be aware of the "www." in your domain when using this code. You may want to alter the code to accommodate all of the possible domains for your site. It is also important to note that there is not a 100% guarantee on the referrer, as this information is sent from the client's browser and is therefore "spoofable."

SQL Injection Attacks
An injection attack is the act of embedding partial SQL queries inside of input that is sent to a WHERE clause in one of your existing queries. A classic (and all too common) example of vulnerable code would look like this:


 <!--- SQL INJECTION VULNERABLE CODE -‡
 <cfquery datasource="#myDNS#" name="qryLogin">
 SELECT * FROM Users WHERE username= '#form.username#' AND
  password='#hash(form.password)#'
 </cfquery>
 <cfif qryLogin.recordCount gt 0>
 	<cfset session.authenticated = 1>
 <cfelse>
 	Invalid login!
 </cfif>
 
To exploit this an attacker would simply have to enter " ' or 1=1--" into the username field. That would produce an end query that looks like this:


 SELECT * FROM Users WHERE username='' or 1=1-- AND password=''
 
As you can see, 1=1 will always be true. The "--" in MS SQL Server will comment out the rest of the query. The resulting record count will be however many records are in the Users table, obviously greater then 0. The user would be logged on and happily browsing your application.

There are a number of things developers can do to reduce the risk of SQL injection attacks in their applications. One technique I like to use is to write a UDF (user-defined function) that will escape out all quotes and then use it as a wrapper for all values passed to the query. Following is a simple example of such a UDF:


 /**
  * UDF that replaces strings commonly used in SQL Injections
  * and replaces them with Unicode equivalents.
  * 
  * Written for September 2004 issue of CFDJ magazine
  * Version 1 by Bryan Murphy, [email protected]
  * Written in cfscript
  * @param string 	 Text to parse. (Required)
  * @return Returns a string.
  * @author Bryan Murphy ([email protected])
  * @version 1, July 22 2004
  */
 function sqlSafe(string) {
   var sqlList = "-- ,'";
   var replacementList =
 "#chr(38)##chr(35)##chr(52)##chr(53)##chr(59)##chr(38)##chr(35)##chr(52)
 ##chr(53) ##chr(59)# , #chr(38)##chr(35)##chr(51)##chr(57)##chr(59)#";
 
   return trim(replaceList( string , sqlList , replacementList ));
 }
 
The simplest way to protect your applications from a SQL injection attack would be to store all of your SQL code in stored procedures. Because a stored procedure does not dynamically create a SQL query, it is not susceptible.

ColdFusion also has the CFQUERYPARAM tag. Using this tag properly will also ensure the safe execution of your SQL queries. Be sure to provide the CFSQLType value to ensure that the data being passed is of the expected type for your database.

Man-in-the-Middle Attack (Session Hijacking)
Using this type of attack, the attacker sometimes sniffs the packets of a legitimate user. The attacker will then alter the packets and send them back at the application on the user's behalf.

The best way to eliminate this risk is by "tying" multiple variables from different scopes together. Require a session, database, and cookie variable to be concatenated and match a session-specific variable. An encrypted or hashed UUID works best for this purpose.

Parameter Manipulation
Another very common type of attack used against a Web application is parameter manipulation. Arguably just about any type of attack could be grouped into this category, but for the purpose of this article I will use this term to refer to attacks by users providing unexpected input into fields they are given access to.

These attacks could range from someone entering ".5" for the quantity of a $100 product and being charged only $50 for it, to someone entering a letter into a field that is expecting a number to see if they can receive an error message.

This type of attack simply comes down to not properly checking user-supplied attributes. If you are expecting a whole number, use the ceiling() function to round entries up to the nearest whole number; if you are expecting any sort of numeric value, use the val() function, which automatically strips out nonnumeric characters.

Your post actions should do a host of error handling and input validation before anything is saved to a database or any access is granted. Your error handling should be done server side. Do not rely on JavaScript or other client-side validation, as these are all easily manipulated by the end user. Be aware that CFFORM fields generate JavaScript validation, making it useless against this sort of attack.

Buffer Overflows
Buffer overflows are by far the most prominently publicized vulnerabilities. Although these are extremely prevalent in normal software, they are not a direct concern for ColdFusion developers, as the ColdFusion Server does not allocate memory at runtime or have pointers. This does not mean that the ColdFusion Server itself is not susceptible to such attacks. The recommended course of action is to subscribe to the ColdFusion security mail list (www.macromedia.com/devnet/security/security_zone/ notification_service.html) and patch appropriately as patches are released.

General ColdFusion-Specific Security Considerations
There are some general things that every ColdFusion programmer should take into consideration. CFFILE, CFFTP, and CFPOP present a unique set of insecurities. Each of these tags allows an end user to write a file to your server. It is important to filter MIME types to exactly what you are expecting. Better yet, allow files to be saved only outside of Web-accessible directories.

In the event of an error, never give away any details (DSNs, table names, directory paths, and so forth) in the error message. Attackers will intentionally throw things at your application in an attempt to generate error messages that will aid them in their attacks.

SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) provides a layer of encryption between the client and the server. If your application stores or transfers any data of a sensitive nature (social security numbers, credit card numbers, etc.) you will need to use SSL. If it's a public site, your users will demand it. Even novice Internet users know to look for the little padlock in the corner of their Web browser; if they don't see it, they take their business to another company.

Authentication/Login Mechanisms
The last security issue I will touch on covers authentication systems and login systems. These systems may seem simple to the average developer, but creating a secure login requires a substantial amount of code. I would recommend putting a lot of time and effort into your login/authentication mechanism and placing it in a CFC or custom tag. Then you can reuse it across all of your applications, and if a problem is found it requires that you change code in only one place for all applications. It's a good idea to use and reuse trusted components. However, if you would prefer an off-the-shelf product, you may try MetaGuard (http://guardianlogic.com/?dna=products&rna=metaguard ). We have written all of the laborious stuff for you.

Always hash/encrypt passwords and other sensitive data. If an attacker is somehow able to get direct access to your database, you don't want them to see all of your passwords in plain text.

Require complex passwords. Time and time again, end users have shown that they are completely content using the name of their pet, child, or even their username as a password. This is gold to an attacker, as it requires only a brief amount of research or one or two guesses to break it. I recommend using some sort of UDF to verify the complexity when a user goes to change or create a password. My favorite is passwordCheck(), which can be downloaded from www.cflib.org/udf.cfm?id=1072

Make passwords expire. This rule is sometimes disregarded, but it is still very important. If an attacker managed to gain a copy of your users table six months ago, he or she will still be able to gain access with those passwords today if you don't require expiration.

Log everything (or at least all that is useful). If someone is hammering an account with 100 invalid login attempts per minute and all you know is that your site is running slow, then your application has a way to go before it can be considered secure. Use CFLOG, write the events to a table in a database, or use CFFILE to write a plain text log file. Any or even combinations of these methods will work. Remember, these logs are useful only if someone actually checks them.

Set a maximum invalid login threshold lockout. In other words, if a user has X invalid login attempts, he or she will be locked out for Y minutes. Some applications require that an administrator unlock an account after a lockout occurs. In my opinion this is not the best method, as it could be used to create a DOS (denial of service) event. It is common for attackers to gather all of the logins they can for a site and run a brute-force or dictionary attack against each one. This will essentially lock out every user on your system (that they have usernames for). This is a nightmare to deal with.

Allow only one connection per user at a time. If someone attempts to log on as a user who is already logged on from a different IP, it should be logged as a security event. The user is either sharing passwords, or his or her password has been compromised.

Write IP-based auto-blacklisting for repeat offenders. This may even be the route you want to go for the invalid login lockout. This way the account itself remains usable by legitimate users, but the attacker's IP is locked out. Of course this does allow the attacker to make an attempt from another IP or to spoof the IP and try again.

As you can see, many security concerns must be taken into account when writing a Web application. It may seem like a lot of extra effort - until you experience your first XSS attack and the attacker makes off with your product for pennies or uses a SQL injection attack to steal your customer database, credit card numbers included.

Security considerations should be included in everything you do. They should be embedded into your thinking and not added as an afterthought.

Resources

  • OWASP: www.owasp.org
  • Search Security: http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com
  • Macromedia CF security: www.macromedia.com/devnet/mx/coldfusion/security.html
  • CF server security announcement list: www.macromedia.com/devnet/security/security_zone/ notification_service.html
  • WASC: http://webappsec.org
  • More Stories By Bryan Murphy

    Bryan Murphy is the owner of GuardianLogic, Inc. (www.guardianlogic.com), an information security firm that provides application and network vulnerability assessments and hardening. He is also one of the authors of Metazoa (www.metazoa.ca), a security-enhanced content management system; Membrane, an application-level firewall; and MetaGuard, a CFC that provides role-based login, authentication, and access control. Bryan has been an ethical hacker since the old-school BBS days. Visit his blog at www.downgrade.org.

    Comments (3)

    Share your thoughts on this story.

    Add your comment
    You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

    In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


    @ThingsExpo Stories
    SYS-CON Events announced today that AgilePoint, the leading provider of Microsoft-centric Business Process Management software, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 2nd International @ThingsExpo which will take place on November 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. AgilePoint is the leading provider of Microsoft-based Business Process Management (BPM) software products, has 1,300+ on-premise and cloud deployments in 25+ countries and provides the same advanced BPM feature set as J2EE vendors like IBM and Appian for the Microsoft .NET native environment. AgilePoint customer...
    One of the biggest challenges when developing connected devices is identifying user value and delivering it through successful user experiences. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Mike Kuniavsky, Principal Scientist, Innovation Services at PARC, will describe an IoT-specific approach to user experience design that combines approaches from interaction design, industrial design and service design to create experiences that go beyond simple connected gadgets to create lasting, multi-device experiences grounded in people’s real needs and desires.
    SYS-CON Events announced today that TeleStax, the main sponsor of Mobicents, will exhibit at Internet of @ThingsExpo, which will take place on November 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. TeleStax provides Open Source Communications software and services that facilitate the shift from legacy SS7 based IN networks to IP based LTE and IMS networks hosted on private (on-premise), hybrid or public clouds. TeleStax products include Restcomm, JSLEE, SMSC Gateway, USSD Gateway, SS7 Resource Adaptors, SIP Servlets, Rich Multimedia Services, Presence Services/RCS, Diame...
    Samsung VP Jacopo Lenzi, who headed the company's recent SmartThings acquisition under the auspices of Samsung's Open Innovaction Center (OIC), answered a few questions we had about the deal. This interview was in conjunction with our interview with SmartThings CEO Alex Hawkinson. IoT Journal: SmartThings was developed in an open, standards-agnostic platform, and will now be part of Samsung's Open Innovation Center. Can you elaborate on your commitment to keep the platform open? Jacopo Lenzi: Samsung recognizes that true, accelerated innovation cannot be driven from one source, but requires a...
    The Internet of Things will greatly expand the opportunities for data collection and new business models driven off of that data. In her session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Esmeralda Swartz, CMO of MetraTech, will discuss how for this to be effective you not only need to have infrastructure and operational models capable of utilizing this new phenomenon, but increasingly service providers will need to convince a skeptical public to participate. Get ready to show them the money! Speaker Bio: Esmeralda Swartz, CMO of MetraTech, has spent 16 years as a marketing, product management, and busin...
    Things are being built upon cloud foundations to transform organizations. This CEO Power Panel at 15th Cloud Expo, moderated by Roger Strukhoff, Cloud Expo and @ThingsExpo conference chair, will address the big issues involving these technologies and, more important, the results they will achieve. How important are public, private, and hybrid cloud to the enterprise? How does one define Big Data? And how is the IoT tying all this together?
    We certainly live in interesting technological times. And no more interesting than the current competing IoT standards for connectivity. Various standards bodies, approaches, and ecosystems are vying for mindshare and positioning for a competitive edge. It is clear that when the dust settles, we will have new protocols, evolved protocols, that will change the way we interact with devices and infrastructure. We will also have evolved web protocols, like HTTP/2, that will be changing the very core of our infrastructures. At the same time, we have old approaches made new again like micro-services...
    SYS-CON Events announces a new pavilion on the Cloud Expo floor where WebRTC converges with the Internet of Things. Pavilion will showcase WebRTC and the Internet of Things. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the most profound change in personal and enterprise IT since the creation of the Worldwide Web more than 20 years ago. All major researchers estimate there will be tens of billions devices--computers, smartphones, tablets, and sensors – connected to the Internet by 2020. This number will continue to grow at a rapid pace for the next several decades.
    The only place to be June 9-11 is Cloud Expo & @ThingsExpo 2015 East at the Javits Center in New York City. Join us there as delegates from all over the world come to listen to and engage with speakers & sponsors from the leading Cloud Computing, IoT & Big Data companies. Cloud Expo & @ThingsExpo are the leading events covering the booming market of Cloud Computing, IoT & Big Data for the enterprise. Speakers from all over the world will be hand-picked for their ability to explore the economic strategies that utility/cloud computing provides. Whether public, private, or in a hybrid form, clo...
    SYS-CON Events announced today that Gridstore™, the leader in software-defined storage (SDS) purpose-built for Windows Servers and Hyper-V, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 15th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Gridstore™ is the leader in software-defined storage purpose built for virtualization that is designed to accelerate applications in virtualized environments. Using its patented Server-Side Virtual Controller™ Technology (SVCT) to eliminate the I/O blender effect and accelerate applications Gridsto...
    SYS-CON Events announced today that Red Hat, the world's leading provider of open source solutions, will exhibit at Internet of @ThingsExpo, which will take place on November 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Red Hat is the world's leading provider of open source software solutions, using a community-powered approach to reliable and high-performing cloud, Linux, middleware, storage and virtualization technologies. Red Hat also offers award-winning support, training, and consulting services. As the connective hub in a global network of enterprises, partners, a...
    As the Internet of Things unfolds, mobile and wearable devices are blurring the line between physical and digital, integrating ever more closely with our interests, our routines, our daily lives. Contextual computing and smart, sensor-equipped spaces bring the potential to walk through a world that recognizes us and responds accordingly. We become continuous transmitters and receivers of data. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Andrew Bolwell, Director of Innovation for HP’s Printing and Personal Systems Group, will discuss how key attributes of mobile technology – touch input, senso...
    The Internet of Things (IoT) is making everything it touches smarter – smart devices, smart cars and smart cities. And lucky us, we’re just beginning to reap the benefits as we work toward a networked society. However, this technology-driven innovation is impacting more than just individuals. The IoT has an environmental impact as well, which brings us to the theme of this month’s #IoTuesday Twitter chat. The ability to remove inefficiencies through connected objects is driving change throughout every sector, including waste management. BigBelly Solar, located just outside of Boston, is trans...
    Connected devices and the Internet of Things are getting significant momentum in 2014. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Jim Hunter, Chief Scientist & Technology Evangelist at Greenwave Systems, will examine three key elements that together will drive mass adoption of the IoT before the end of 2015. The first element is the recent advent of robust open source protocols (like AllJoyn and WebRTC) that facilitate M2M communication. The second is broad availability of flexible, cost-effective storage designed to handle the massive surge in back-end data in a world where timely analytics...
    Internet of @ThingsExpo Silicon Valley announced on Thursday its first 12 all-star speakers and sessions for its upcoming event, which will take place November 4-6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in California. @ThingsExpo, the first and largest IoT event in the world, debuted at the Javits Center in New York City in June 10-12, 2014 with over 6,000 delegates attending the conference. Among the first 12 announced world class speakers, IBM will present two highly popular IoT sessions, which will take place November 4-6, 2014 at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, Calif...
    The Internet of Things (IoT) promises to evolve the way the world does business; however, understanding how to apply it to your company can be a mystery. Most people struggle with understanding the potential business uses or tend to get caught up in the technology, resulting in solutions that fail to meet even minimum business goals. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Jesse Shiah, CEO / President / Co-Founder of AgilePoint Inc., will show what is needed to leverage the IoT to transform your business. He will discuss opportunities and challenges ahead for the IoT from a market and tec...
    From a software development perspective IoT is about programming "things," about connecting them with each other or integrating them with existing applications. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Yakov Fain, co-founder of Farata Systems and SuranceBay, will show you how small IoT-enabled devices from multiple manufacturers can be integrated into the workflow of an enterprise application. This is a practical demo of building a framework and components in HTML/Java/Mobile technologies to serve as a platform that can integrate new devices as they become available on the market.
    SYS-CON Events announced today that O'Reilly Media has been named “Media Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 15th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. O'Reilly Media spreads the knowledge of innovators through its books, online services, magazines, and conferences. Since 1978, O'Reilly Media has been a chronicler and catalyst of cutting-edge development, homing in on the technology trends that really matter and spurring their adoption by amplifying "faint signals" from the alpha geeks who are creating the future. An...
    The Transparent Cloud-computing Consortium (abbreviation: T-Cloud Consortium) will conduct research activities into changes in the computing model as a result of collaboration between "device" and "cloud" and the creation of new value and markets through organic data processing High speed and high quality networks, and dramatic improvements in computer processing capabilities, have greatly changed the nature of applications and made the storing and processing of data on the network commonplace.
    SYS-CON Events announced today that Aria Systems, the recurring revenue expert, has been named "Bronze Sponsor" of SYS-CON's 15th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 4-6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Aria Systems helps leading businesses connect their customers with the products and services they love. Industry leaders like Pitney Bowes, Experian, AAA NCNU, VMware, HootSuite and many others choose Aria to power their recurring revenue business and deliver exceptional experiences to their customers.